Uridine: The Neurological Benefits

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Uridine is one of five nucleosides which make up nucleic acids and is found in RNA but not DNA.

Uridine is present in many foods in the form of RNA. The following foods contain trace amounts of uridine:

§  Tomatoes

§  Brewer’s yeast

§  Beer

§  Broccoli

§  Baker’s Yeast

§  Mushrooms

§  Oats

§  Chinese Cabbage, Spinach, and Cauliflower

§  Parsley

However, uridine in RNA is not bioavailable, since it is almost entirely destroyed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract.  The only studied exception to this is beer. Yet no food, when consumed, has ever been reliably shown to elevate blood uridine levels.

Uridine is found in two forms:

§  Uridine-5′-Monophosphate Disodium (UMP)

§  Triacetyluridine (TAU)

Uridine-5′-Monophosphate Disodium (UMP)

Uridine 5′-monophosphate disodium salt is a nucleotide that is a major component of ribonucleic acid. It is found in dietary supplements as well as natural RNA rich foods as well as the milk of most mammals, including human mother’s milk.

Uridine monophosphate (UMP) is water soluble, and can be taken sublingually to drastically increase the amount that gets to your brain.

Triacetyluridine (TAU)

Triacetyluridine (TAU) is a prodrug of uridine, and thus is a more bio available form of uridine.  TAU is also fat soluble whereas UMP is water soluble. TAU has 7-fold greater bioavailability than an equimolar amount of Uridine and is rapidly converted within the body to Uridine.

 

Table 1.1 Neurological Benefits of Uridine

Uridine

 

 

 

Biosystem

Condition

Benefit

Reference

Neurological

 

 

 

 

Alzheimer’s

 

 

 

 

Uridine may be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.

 [1]

 

Axons

 

 

 

 

Uridine may stimulate the outgrowth of Axons.

 [2]

 

Depression

 

 

 

 

Uridine may useful in alleviating depression when combining uridine and omega-3 fatty acids

 [3]

 

Huntington’s Disease

 

 

 

 

Uridine may be useful for the treatment of Huntington’s Disease

 [4]

 

Memory

 

 

 

 

Uridine may help in the improvement of memory

 [5]

 

Parkinson’s Disease

 

 

 

 

Uridine may be a useful treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

 [6]

 

Neurogenesis

 

 

 

 

Uridine enhances the neurite outgrowth produced by nerve growth factor (NGF)

The TAU form of uridine is able to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF) by activating P2Y2 receptors within the brain, thus increasing neuron growth.

 [7]

 

Neurotransmitters

 

 

 

 

Uridine may stimulate the release of dopamine in the Brain

 [8]

 

Choline synthesis

 

 

 

 

Exogenous uridine was shown to elevate intracellular CDP-choline levels, by promoting the synthesis of uridine triphosphate (UTP), which was partly converted to CTP

 [9]

 

Cell Membrane phospholipids

 

 

 

 

Short-term administration of uridine increases brain membrane phospholipid precursors in healthy adults

 [10]

References:


[1] Agnati, L. F., et al.  Intravenous uridine treatment antagonizes hypoglycaemia-induced reduction in brain somatostatin-like immunoreactivity.  Acta Physiol Scand.  126(4):525-531, 1986.

 

Wurtman, R. J., et al.  Synapse formation is enhanced by oral administration of uridine and dha, the circulating precursors of brain phosphatides.  J Nutr Health Aging.  13(3):189-197, 2009.

 

[2] Wang, L., et al.  Dietary uridine-5′-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats.  J Mol Neurosci.  27(1):137-145, 2005.

 

[4] Saydoff, J. A., et al.  Oral uridine pro-drug PN401 decreases neurodegeneration, behavioral impairment, weight loss and mortality in the 3-nitropropionic acid mitochondrial toxin model of Huntington’s disease.  Brain Research.  994(1):44-54, 2003.

 

[5] Drago, F., et al.  Memory deficits of aged male rats can be improved by pyrimidine nucleosides and N-acetyl-glutamine.  Clin Neuropharmacol.  13(4):290-296, 1990.

 

Holguin, S., et al.  Chronic administration of DHA and UMP improves the impaired memory of environmentally impoverished rats.  Behav Brain Res.  2008.

 

[6]Kilvenyi, P., et al.  Neuroprotective effects of oral administration of triacetyluridine against MPTP neurotoxicity.  Neuromolecular Medicine.  6(2-3):87-92, 2004.

 

[7] Wang, L., et al.  Dietary uridine-5′-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats.  J Mol Neurosci.  27(1):137-145, 2005.

 

[8] Wang, L., et al.  Dietary uridine-5′-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats.  J Mol Neurosci.  27(1):137-145, 2005.

 

[9] Wang, L., et al.  Dietary uridine-5′-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats.  J Mol Neurosci.  27(1):137-145, 2005.

 

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