The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis: Critical to Overall Health

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Intestinal microbiota has been researched extensively and demonstartes an important role in healthy brain function.  This is due to the gut–brain axis which refers to the biochemical signaling taking place between the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system, often  [i]

The gut–brain axis,  functions as a pathway for the gut microbiota to modulate brain function of its host. This pathway is bidirectional communication system in the human body.  The gut-brain axis establishes a corelation between the function of the gut and the condition of tha brain.  If the gut is in dysbiosis (dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis) is microbial imbalance on or inside the body), the condition of the brain is likely compromised. [ii]

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The human body carries about 100 trillion microorganisms in its intestines. There exists about 300 and 1000 different species that live in the gut, with most estimates at about 500.  Ninety-nine percent of the bacteria in the gut come from about 30 or 40 species. 

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Table:  The role of Microbiome in Central Nervous System disorders

Microbiome in CNS Disorders

 

 

Disease/Condition

Effect

Reference

Multiple sclerosis

 

 

 

Recent studies have begun to elucidate the contribution of microbiome and its relevant factors to MS pathogenesis

 1 

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS)

 

 

 

Preceding infection with bacteria or virus, such as Haemophilus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza, and EBV, has been suggested as environmental triggers for Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS)

 2 

Meningitis

 

 

 

The adult gut commensal Escherichia coli K1 were able to cause meningitis via maternal transfer to newborn infants

 3 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

 

 

 

It was postulated that elevated translocation of commensal bacteria could be responsible for the disease activities in some CFS patients.

 4  

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

 

 

 

Emerging data have indicated a link between gut microbiome and ASD, either as direct causality or as indirect consequences of atypical patterns of feeding and nutrition

  5

Depression

 

 

 

Probiotic treatment has shown efficacy in suppression of animal depression models. Species under Lactobacillus genus are particularly characterized as anti-depressant.

 6 7 8 

Anxiety and Stress

 

 

 

Co-morbidity with anxiety and stress has been perceived in drastic and mild types of intestinal dysfunctions, underscoring the role of gut–brain signals such as neurotransmitters and immune factors

 9 10

Pain

 

 

 

Nociceptive pain that is caused by peripheral nervous response to stimuli and signaling transduction to the CNS can be alleviated by probiotic modulation of microbiome.

  11 12

 

Table:  Factors linking Microbiome and the Central Nervous System

Microbiome and the CNS

 

 

Factors

Effect

Reference

Hygiene

 

 

 

Aberrant immune development is therefore a potential mechanism that links hygiene and immune-mediated CNS disorders.   hygiene exerts case-specific rather than universal influences on neuro-chemistry and neuro-behavioral manifestations.

 13 

Antibiotics

 

 

 

Current studies support a beneficial role of antibiotic treatment of neuro-behavioral disorders. Antibiotic treatment reduced stress response and increased exploratory behavior in mice and offered short-term benefit to regressive-onset autism children.

  14 

Probiotics

 

 

 

Ingestion of beneficial live bacteria, also know as probiotics, is a therapeutic way of using microbiota components for treatment. Probiotics can regulate immune subsets, especially in the case of CNS autoimmunity.

  15 

Diet

 

 

 

Diet patterns may modulate gut microbiome via alteration of nutrient availability. Recent developments have suggested that dietary intervention can impact gut microbial gene richness.

 16 17 

Gut permeability

 

 

 

Gut permeability has been directly and indirectly associated with the role of microbiome in CNS disorders.

  18 

Table:  Nutraceuticals/Foods/Herbs that Enhances the health of the Small Intestine

Small Intestine

 

 

Catagory

Nutraceuticals/Foods/Herbs

Reference

Amino Acids

 

 

 

Glutamine

 19

Carbohydrates

 

 

 

Guar Gum

 20 

Enzymes

 

 

 

Pancreatic enzymes

 21 

 

Proteolytic enzymes

 22

Foods

 

 

 

Colostrum

 23

Herbs

 

 

 

Green Tea

 24

Lipids

 

 

 

DHA

 25

Probiotics

 

 

 

Bifidobacteria longum

 26

 

Lactobacilicus

 27

Proteins

 

 

 

Lactoferrin

 28

 

Table:  Nutraceuticals/Foods/Herbs that Enhance the health of the Large Intestine

Large Intestine

 

 

Catagory

Nutraceuticals/Foods/Herbs

Reference

Amino Acid

 

 

 

Glutamine

 29 30

Lipids

 

 

 

Butyric Acid

 30

 

Acetic Acid

 31

 

Propionic Acid

 32

Probiotics

 

 

 

Bifidobacteria

 33


References:

[i] The microbiota–gut–brain axis: neurobehavioral correlates, health and sociality

Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression

Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior

The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

[ii] The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives


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