Styphnolobium japonicum (commonly known as the Pagoda Tree) and formerly known as Sophora japonica, (Chinese: 槐; pinyin: huái hua)is a species of tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Three very unique antioxidants have been identified from Styphnolobium japonicum: 1
- kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 –> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 –> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
- kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 –> 6)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 –> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
- kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 –> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside
These three compounds showed antioxidative activity in DPPH and cytochrome-c assay using HL-60 cell system.
Styphnolobium japonicum promotes overall cardiovascular system health through its two identified compounds:
- Troxerutin is a flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is more accurately a hydroxyethylrutoside.
- Oxymatrine (matrine oxide, matrine N-oxide, matrine 1-oxide) is one of many quinolizidine alkaloid compounds extracted from the root of Styphnolobium japonicum.
The Table below lists the health benefits of Styphnolobium japonicum through its two main substances, Troxerutin and Oxymatrine:
Health Benefits of Styphnolobium japonicum (Troxerutin and Oxymatrine)
Substance Condition Effect/Benefit Reference(s)
Troxerutin Vasoprotective Effectiveness of Troxerutin in association with Pycnogenol in the pharmacological treatment of venous insufficiency 1
Cognitive deficits Results suggest that troxerutin could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. 2
Haemorrhoids Troxerutin may be used in the treatment of haemorrhoids 3
Microangiopermeability Troxerutin may alleviate and prevent Microangiopermeability 4
Venous insufficiency Troxerutin is a naturally fluorescent flavonoid which has been known to improve subjective signs of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. 5
Gamma-radiation In addition to anti-erythrocytic, anti-thrombic, fibrinolytic and oedema-protective rheological activity, troxerutin offers protection against gamma-radiation-induced micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks and enhances repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. 6
Oxymatrine Antitumor activities Results demonstrate that matrine possesses strong antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are the likely mechanisms responsible for matrine's antitumor activities. 7
Apoptosis Results demonstrate that matrine triggers apoptosis of K562 cells primarily through the mitochondrial pathway and that matrine is a potential anti-tumor drug. 8
Cardiac ischemia The beneficial effects of oxymatrine were likely mediated by an inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA production) and an increase in endogenous antioxidant activity (SOD), activation of the survival signaling molecule (Bcl-2), and a reduction of apoptotic mediator (Fas) and intracellular Ca2+ overload. 9
Myocardial injury Results indicate that Oxymatrine (OMT) exhibits substantial therapeutic potential for the treatment of septic shock‑induced myocardial injury through inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. 10
Antiarrhythmic Results showed that administration of oxymatrine significantly delayed the onset of ventricular arrhythmia, decreased the duration of ventricular arrhythmia and reduced the arrhythmia score of arrhythmic rats. The beneficial effects of oxymatrine may be related to the shortening of APD through reduction of I(Ca-L) , enhancement of I(to) and inhibition of I(K1). 11
Heart failure Findings suggest that oxymatrine could improve heart failure by improving the cardiac function and that this amelioration is associated with upregulation of SERCA2a and DHPR. 12
Myocardial fibrosis Results of this research indicated that oxymatrine might protect against myocardial fibrosis and the mechanism may be involved in modulating TGF-β(1)-Smads signal pathway. 13
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