Sage: A Magnificent Spice from the Mediterranean

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Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, or common sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region.

Salvia officinalis contains a number of important compounds:

  • 1,8-cineol
  • Apigenin
  • α-pinene
  • borneol
  • borneol
  • bornyl esters
  • caffeic acid
  • camphor
  • carnosic acid
  • carnosol
  • chlorogenic acid
  • cineole
  • estrogenic
  • flavones
  • flavonoid glycosides
  • fumaric acid
  • niacin
  • nicotinamide
  • oleic acid
  • salvene
  • tannic acid
  • thujone
  • thujone
  • ursolic acid

The Table below is a list of the referenced and recognized studies on the health benefits of Salvia officinalis:

Health Benefits of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

SystemCategoryBenefitReference
Detoxification
Bisphenol A
Sage may facilitate the removal of Bisphenol A from the body.A
Immunity
Colon cancer
May assist in the prevention of colon cancerB
Lung cancer
May assist in the prevention of lung cancerC
Metabolism
Glycation
Inhibits advanced glycation end productsD
Neurological
Alertness
May increase AlertnessE
Attention
An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attentionF
Memory
May improve Memory. After treatment with sage, participants showed significant memory enhancement at all assessment times throughout the testing days, most especially on the 333 mg testing day.G H
Anxiety
May reduce Anxiety.I
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
Prevents acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine.J
Alzheimer’s
May offer a novel natural treatment for Alzheimer’s diseaseK
Mood
Has long been associated with a calming and spirit-lifting effectL
Neurogenesis
The apigenin content in Sage may stimulate adult neurogenesis—the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain—by promoting a process called neuronal differentiation.M
Alzheimer’s
Rosmarinic acid protected PC12 cells from Abeta-induced neurotoxicityN

Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)

Salia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) is a small woody herbaceous perennial native to Spain and southern France, growing in rocky soil in Maquis shrubland.

It is also known as Lavender-leaved Sage and traditionally has been used as a ‘cure all’ in Spain, where it is believed to promote longevity and protect against infection.

Salvia lavandulifolia  contains a number of important compounds:

  • camphor (16–31 %)
  • camphene (5–11%)
    • monoterpenes
    • 1,8–cineole (13–19%)
    • α-pinene
    • β-pinene (8–13 %)
    • caryophyllene oxide
  • viridiflorol (0–12 %)

The Table below is a list of the referenced and recognized studies on the health benefits of Salvia lavandulifolia:

Health Benefits of Spanish Sage (Salia lavandulifolia)

SystemCategoryBenefitReference(s)
Metabolism
Antioxidant
Salvia lavandulifolia is a potent antioxidant capacity by ROS scavenging, enhancing the endogenous antioxidant system and inhibiting lipid peroxidationA
Neurological
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
S. lavandulifolia has been found to have a selective acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting effectB
Memory
Administration of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) has been reported to be effective in improving the speed of memory and mood.C D
Alzheimer’s
Spanish sage (S. lavandulaefolia) is effective in the management of mild to moderate ADE


Resources:

Herb Pharma – Sage


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