Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is an organic molecule found in bacteria that stimulates its growth. It contains various enzymes known as quinoproteins that use pyrroloquinoline quinone as a cofactor. These enzymes, which include glucose dehydrogenase, amine dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and so forth, have applications in biosensing and bioconversion of useful compounds.

PQQ symbol FS

Chemical Structure of  pyrroloquinoline quinone 

Studies have found that pyrroloquinoline quinone helps improve neonatal growths and reproductive performance in animals. One study conducted with mice found that a lack of pyrroloquinoline quinone resulted in reproduction failure, poor growth, defects in connective tissue, and were osteolathyritic.

Other studies have found that pyrroloquinoline quinone is a powerful antioxidant – especially for the mitochondria, the organelle found in cells that generates most of the cell’s chemical energy. This molecule is able to provide protection against free radicals and carry out a large number of electron transfers without breaking down. It is also invaluable for neutralizing both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that cause dysfunction in mitochondria. As a result, pyrroloquinoline quinone can protect against aging, degenerative diseases, and other consequences of aging including the heart and the brain.

In addition, Pyrroloquinoline quinone provides benefits towards certain functions such as cognition and immunity. This is also channeled through its antioxidant properties, which makes it able to protect against oxidative stress and protect an individual’s memory and cognition. It has also been found to protect an individual against cardiac and neurological ischemic events.


Quinoproteins: structure, function, and biotechnological applications

Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone

Nutritional importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone

Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ): implications for its function in biological systems

Pyrroloquinoline quinone: excretion by methylotrophs and growth stimulation for microorganisms

Biochemistry: Is pyrroloquinoline quinone a vitamin?

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a potent neuroprotective nutrient against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity

Synthesis of monoesters of pyrroloquinoline quinone and imidazopyrroloquinoline, and radical scavenging activities using electron spin resonance in vitro and pharmacological activity in vivo

Physiological importance of quinoenzymes and the O-quinone family of cofactors

Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression

Pyrroloquinoline quinone preserves mitochondrial function and prevents oxidative injury in adult rat cardiac myocytes

The essential nutrient pyrroloquinoline quinone may act as a neuroprotectant by suppressing peroxynitrite formation

Pyrroloquinoline quinone attenuates iNOS gene expression in the injured spinal cord

Neuroprotection by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in the adult rat

The putative essential nutrient pyrroloquinoline quinone is neuroprotective in a rodent model of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury

Interaction of the putative essential nutrient pyrroloquinoline quinone with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor redox modulatory site

Further evidence that pyrroloquinoline quinone interacts with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor redox site in rat cortical neurons in vitro

Effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on glutamate-induced production of reactive oxygen species in neurons

Protection of pyrroloquinoline quinone against methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity via reducing oxidative stress

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents fibril formation of alpha-synuclein

Protective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

Pyrroloquinoline quinone inhibits the fibrillation of amyloid proteins

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) decreases myocardial infarct size and improves cardiac function in rat models of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusio

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Modulates Mitochondrial Quantity and Function in Mice

The pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis pathway revisited: A structural approach

New biological properties of pyrroloquinoline quinone and its related compounds: inhibition of chemiluminescence, lipid peroxidation and rat paw edema

The Role of Phenolics, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Carnosine, and Pyrroloquinoline Quinone as Nonessential Dietary Antioxidants

Levels of pyrroloquinoline quinone in various foods

Nutritional importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone

    Print This Post Print This Post