Nutrients that Support Phase II Detoxification Pathways

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During phase II detoxification, activated substances from phase I, which are known as intermediates are conjugated and altered further before expulsion from the body.

Six different major biochemical reactions occur in this phase, known as:

  • Glutathione conjugation
  • Amino acid conjugation
  • Methylation
  • Sulfation
  • Acetylation
  • Glucuronidation

Each of these reactions works on specific types of intermediates and needs specific nutrients in order to proceed to successful completion.

The nutrients required for phase II fall into two categories. The first are the amino acids, which donate molecules that are attached to phase I intermediates. These include the sulfur donors, among which are the amino acids methionine, taurine, cysteine, and N-acetylcysteine. Other, non-sulfur-containing amino acids are also required: glycine, taurine, glutamine, ornithine, and arginine.

 

Table: Nutrients needed by Phase II Detoxification Enzymes

Nutrients Phase II

Phase II System

Nutrient

Glutathione conjugation

Glutathione

Vitamin B6

Glutathione Precursors (Cysteine, Glycine, NAC)

Essential Fatty Acids

Vitamin B6

Amino acid conjugation

Glycine

Folic Acid, Manganese, B-2, B-6/P-5-P

Taurine

Glutamine

Arginine

Ornithine

Methylation

S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe)

Magnesium

Folic Acid

Vitamin B12

Betaine (TMG)

Sulfation

Cysteine

Methionine

Molybdenum

Vitamin B12

Folic Acid

Magnesium

MSM

Taurine

Acetylation

Acetyl CoA

Molybdenum

Iron

Niacinamide (B3)

Vitamin B2

Glucuronidation

Glucuronic acid

Magnesium

B-Vitamins


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