Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), also known as human endothelial nitric oxide synthase, is a family of enzymes facilitates the body’s production of nitric oxide by stripping a nitrogen atom from arginine molecules and combining the nitrogen atom with oxygen to produce nitric oxide. The remaining arginine (without the nitrogen) becomes L-Citrulline.
There are two pathways that produces to produce nitric oxide in the human body:
- Nitrate – nitrite – nitric oxide pathway
- L-arginine – nitric oxide pathway
The L-arginine – nitric oxide pathway is depended on a properly functioning NOS enzyme system. The Nitrate-Nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is not dependent on NOS.
There are three forms of nitric oxide synthase:
nNOS or NOS1: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase: this form is present in your neurons, peripheral nerve cells, and pancreatic islet cells. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase produces nitric oxide in the brain to use primarily for signaling across the neuron’s.
iNOS or NOS-2: Inducible nitric oxide synthase: this form of and NOS is present in macro phages, hepatocytes, signal via sites and smooth muscle cells. The body uses this nitric oxide synthase to produce nitric oxide as part of the immune system. Nitric oxide is detrimental to the bacteria.
eNOS or NOS-3: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: this form is capable of synthesizing nitric oxide in vascular endothelial cells where it appears to play an important role in the control of as attention and platelet aggregation.
The following nutrients have been studied and research for their ability to facilitate the production of nitric oxide synthase:
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