In the November 23, 2004 (vol. 101 no. 47 16507-16512) issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, an article entitled “Mitochondrial biogenesis by NO yields functionally active mitochondria in mammals”, stated that “long-term exposure to nitric oxide (NO) triggers mitochondrial biogenesis in mammalian cells and tissues”.
Excerpt from the article:
“We recently found that long-term exposure to nitric oxide (NO) triggers mitochondrial biogenesis in mammalian cells and tissues by activation of guanylate cyclase and generation of cGMP. Here, we report that the NO/cGMP-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with enhanced coupled respiration and content of ATP in U937, L6, and PC12 cells.
The observed increase in ATP content depended entirely on oxidative phosphorylation, because ATP formation by glycolysis was unchanged. Brain, kidney, liver, heart, and gastrocnemius muscle from endothelial NO synthase null mutant mice displayed markedly reduced mitochondrial content associated with significantly lower oxygen consumption and ATP content.
In these tissues, ultrastructural analyses revealed significantly smaller mitochondria. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the number of mitochondria was observed in the subsarcolemmal region of the gastrocnemius muscle. We conclude that NO/cGMP stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, and that this stimulation is associated with increased mitochondrial function, resulting in enhanced formation of ATP.”
So how does one increase Nitric Oxide (NO) in the body. One way to is to consume L-Citrulline DL-Malate.
L-citrulline is converted to the amino acid L-arginine, which goes on to make another important substance nitric oxide. In contrast to L-arginine, L-citrulline is not metabolized in the areas of the body where arginase, the enzyme that breaks down L-arginine, is present, like the the intestines and liver. Instead, L-citrulline goes into the kidneys where it is rapidly converted into L-arginine.
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