Ginger: Multiple Health Benefits

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant in the family Zingiberaceae whose rhizome is ginger root or simply ginger.  It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers.

Other members of the family Zingiberaceae include turmeric, cardamom and galangal.

ginger

The health benefits of ginger is due to the many active compounds which are listed in the Table below:

Compounds in Ginger

Ginger 
CategoryCompound
phenylpropanoid-derived compounds
6-gingerol - 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′- methoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-3-decanone)
8-gingerol
10-gingerol
Methoxy-10-gingerol
6-shogaol
10-shogaol
1,7-bis-(4′ hydroxyl-3′ methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxyhepthan-3-one
10-gingerdione and 1-deoxy-10-gingerdione
hexahydrocurcumin
tetrahydrocurcumin
6-paradol
Gingerenone A
Galanal A and B
Quercetin
Kaempferol
epicatechin
Rutin
Naringenin
Curcumin
zingerone
sesquiterpenoids
(-)-zingiberene
β-sesquiphellandrene
bisabolene
farnesene
monoterpenoid fraction
β-phelladrene
cineol
citral

Consuming ginger provides multiple health benefits.  The Table below lists some of the recognized and researched studies on the health benefits of ginger:

Health Benefits of Ginger

Ginger   
SystemCategoryBenefitReferences
Neurological
Alzheimer’s
[6]-Gingerol pretreatment protected against Aβ(25-35)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death such as DNA fragmentation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3.1
Anxiety
Ginger may bind to and activate 5-HT1A Receptors which is one of the serotonin neurotransmitter receptors. ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) reduces anxiety.2
Alzheimer’s
Ginger can inhibit activation of human monocytic THP-1 cells by different pro-inflammatory stimuli and reduce the expression of a wide range of inflammation-related genes in these microglial-like cells3
Memory
Showed improvements (accuracy and speed) in word recognition tests and working memory (numeric and spatial) as well as improved choice reaction times4 5
Cerebrovascular
Ginger could be valuable for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complication due to platelet aggregation.6
Parkinson’s
The effects of eugenol treatment in this model suggest its possible usefulness for the treatment of Parkinson disease.7
Neuroblastoma
Shogaols protected IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal HUVEC from Abeta-insult8
Cardiovascular
Hypertension
By its blood pressure-lowering effects, ginger can protect against the chronic brain injury caused by hypertension.9
Detoxification
Phase III Transporters - bile flow
Ginger have been shown to stimulate bile flow or bile acid production in rodent models10


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