The Many Forms of Vitamin B Complex


The B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism and are crucial to overall health.  The vitamin B complex consist of eight B vitamins, listed below:

  • Vitamin B1(Thiamine)
  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  • Vitamin B3 (Niacin or nicotinic acid)
  • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
  • Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

This article will also list three additional vitamins that are also considered B vitamins, although not listed in the vitamin B complex list, yet are crucial to overall health. These three additional B vitamins are:

  • Vitamin B4 (Choline)
  • Vitamin B8 (Inositol)
  • Vitamin B10 (Para Aminobenzoic Acid)

There are a number of different forms of the B vitamins, both natural and synthetic and some are fat soluble forms of these naturally water soluble vitamins.  The following table list these different forms of the eleven B vitamins.  The links in the table is either to The Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center or the Wikipedia page specific to that form of the vitamin.  This is provided for further information on the B vitamin if further research is desired.

Forms of Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B Complex  
Vitamin B1 Thiamine
BenfotiamineFat-soluble analogue of Vitamin B1; cannot cross the Blood-Brain Barrie
FursultiamineKnown as: Allithiamin; Allithiamine; Thiamine Tetrahydrofurfuryl Disulfide; Fat soluble analogue
SulbutiamineFat soluble analogue; can cross the blood brain barrier; known as Arcalion; Enerion; Surmenalit
Thiamine DiphosphateCoenzyme form of Vitamin B1; known as Cocarboxylase; Thiamin Diphosphate; Thiamin Pyrophosphate; Thiamine Pyrophosphate
Thiamine Hydrochloride89% Thiamine and 11% Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Thiamine MonophosphateKnown as Thiamine Phosphate
Thiamine NitrateKnown as Thiamine Mononitrate
Thiamine Propyl Disulfide
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin
Flavin MononucleotideKnown as FMN, Riboflavin Monophosphate, Riboflavin Phosphate
Riboflavin-5-PhosphateEasily assimilated form of Vitamin B2
Vitamin B3 Niacin
Nicotinic Acid (Niacin)
Inositol HexanicotinateDoes not cause flushing (from Histamine release)
NiacinamideMain form of Vitamin B3 present in dietary sources; known as Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a precursor of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine nucleotide) and NADH biosynthesis.
Nicotinamide Riboside
Xanthinol NicotinateSynthetic form of the Nicotinic Acid; can pass easily through Cell Membranes into Cells
Vitamin B4 (Choline)
Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC)Choline bound to Glycerophosphate; highly bioavailable form of choline
Choline BitartrateConsists of 42% Choline bound to Tartaric Acid; common form in supplements
Choline ChlorideConsists of 33.3% Choline bound to the Chloride form of Chlorine; present in some liquid Choline supplements
Choline Citrate (Choline Dihydrogen Citrate)Consists of 38% Choline bound to Citric Acid (Citrate)
Cytidine Diphosphate Choline (CDP-Choline)
Phosphatidylcholine (PC)Type of Phosholipid that includes Choline within its chemical structure; highly bioavailable to the brain
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid
Calcium PantothenateComprised of 91.5% Pantothenic Acid + 7.5% Calcium; common form of Vitamin B5
d-Pantothenic AcidNatural form of Vitamin B5
PantetheineCondensation product of Pantothenic Acid and Aminoethanethiol;
PantethineA natural form of Vitamin B5; highly bioavailable form of Vitamin B5
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine
PyridoxalObtained via the diet from Animal Food sources
Pyridoxal-5-PhosphateActive endogenous coenzyme form of Vitamin B6
PyridoxineCommon supplemental form of Vitamin B6
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin has only one formWater soluble vitamin
Vitamin B8 (Inositol)
D-Chiro-InositolPharmaceutical Drug for the treatment of Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Inositol HexanicotinateKnown as Hexanicotinoyl Inositol, IHN, Inositol Hexaniacinate or Inositol Niacinate; consists of one molecule of Inositol bound to six molecules of Nicotinic Acid (by weight, 10% Inositol + 90% Nicotinic Acid); used as a non-flushing, timed-release form of Nicotinic Acid
Inositol Hexaphosphate (InsP6; IP6)Form of Inositol present in some foods (eg. Grains, Soybeans)
MyoinositolKnown as Mesoinositol; cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-Inositol); supplemental form of Inositol
PhosphatidylinositolPhospholipid form of Inositol that contains Myoinositol
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Folic Acid(Pteroylglutamic Acid; Pteroylmonoglutamic Acid); common form and is a naturally occurring Pteridine derivative comprising a Pteridine, PABA, and Glutamic Acid
5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-Methyl-FH4)Predominant form of intracellular Folic Acid
5,10-Methenyl-FH4Form of reduced Folic Acid
Methyl Folateknown as L-Methylfolate; L-5-Methyl Tetrahydrofolate; 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid; L-5-MTHF; Metafolin; form in which Folic Acid is stored within the Liver
Folinic AcidKnown as 5-Formyl-Tetrahydrofolic Acid; 5-Formyl-Tetrahydrofolate; 5-formyl THF; Folinic Acid is the precursor of Methyl Folate
Calcium FolinateKnown as Citrovorum Factor; Leucovorin; Folinic Acid bound to Calcium
Vitamin B10 (Para Aminobenzoic Acid)
One form of PABA
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin
Cobalamin (Cbl)General term for all Vitamin B12 forms with the Dimethylbenzimidazolylcobamide nucleus
MethylcobalaminKnown as met-Cbl; MeCbl; Methyl-B12; form of Vitamin B12 that is available as a supplement (in tablet form). Methylcobalamin accounts for approximately 70% of the total Blood Plasma Vitamin B12 reserves
AdenosylcobalaminKnown as ado-Cbl; Cobamamide; Coenzyme B12; Deoxyadenosylcobalamin; Dibencozide; Dimethyl Benzimidazole-cobamide Coenzyme; coenzyme form of Vitamin B12 that helps to maintain the correct Fatty Acids in Myelin; Cyanocobalamin is converted within the Intestines to Adenosylcobalamin
CyanocobalaminContains Cyanide and Cobalamin; most common form of Vitamin B12
HydroxocobalaminKnown as Hydroxocobemine; Hydroxycobalamin; Vitamin B12b; Hydroxocobalamin differs from Cyanocobalamin by the presence of a Hydroxyl Ion in place of the Cyanide Ion’ only administered via Intramuscular or intravenous injection; remains in the blood circulation longer than other forms

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