Chronic Inflammation


Inflammation is a defensive reaction or a complex biological response to a specific infectious agent, toxin, or injury. As a mechanism of innate immunity, inflammation is a stereotyped response.

Inflammation can be classified as either:

  • Acute, or
  • Systemic or Chronic

Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli at the cellular level by a variety of pro- and anti- inflammatory chemicals called cytokines. After an injury, these cytokines in the blood are elevated. The healing process then begins and the inflammation begins to subside and the inflammatory chemicals in the blood return to normal.

Systemic or chronic inflammation occurs when there are inflammatory chemicals in the blood for no reason resulting in a chronic state of low-grade inflammation.

Systemic inflammation can be caused by environmental toxins, poor dietary choices, poor nutrition, detrimental bacteria and fungi exposure.

Compounds that researched and studied for their potential ability to prevent or minimize chronic inflammation:

  • Alkaloids
    • Berbamine [1]
    • Berberine [2]
    • Capsaicin [3]
    • Gentianine [4]
    • Taspine [5]
  • Amino Acids
    • Arginine [6]
    • Glutamine [7]
    • Glycine [8]
    • Tryptophan [9]
  • Carbohydrates
    • Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA-A) [10]
    • Glucosamine Sulfate [11]
  • Carotenoids
    • Astaxanthin [12]
    • Lycopene [13]
  • Enzymes
    • Pancreatic Enzymes [14]
    • Bromelain (enteric coated) [15]
    • Pancreatin [16]
    • Papain [17]
    • Serrapeptase [18]
  • Lipids
    • Boswellic Acid [19]
    • Chamazulene [20]
    • Glycyrrhetinic Acid [21]
    • Glycyrrhizin [22]
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids [23]
    • Alpha-Linolenic Acid (LNA) [24]
    • Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) [25]
    • Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) [26]
  • Minerals
    • Magnesium [27]
    • Selenium [28]
    • Zinc [29]
  • Organic Acids
    • Ferulic Acid [30]
    • Rosmarinic Acid [31]
  • Polyphenols
    • Anthocyanidins [32]
    • Cyanidin [33]
    • Arbutin [34]
    • Curcumin [35]
    • Flavones [36]
    • Luteolin [37]
    • Nobiletin [38]
    • Gamma Oryzanol [39]
    • Hesperidin [40]
    • Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) [41]
    • Quercetin [42]
    • Rutin [43]
    • Silymarin [44]
  • Quinones
    • Coenzyme Q10 [45]
    • Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid (NDGA) [46]
  • Nootropics
    • Vinpocetine [47]
  • Sulfuric Compounds
    • Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) [48]
  • Vitamins
    • Alpha-Lipoic Acid [49]
    • Vitamin A [50]
    • Vitamin B2 [51]
    • Vitamin B6 [52]
    • Vitamin C [53]
    • Vitamin D [54]
    • Vitamin E [55]
      • Delta-Tocotrienol [56]
      • Gamma-Tocopherol [57]
    • Vitamin K [58]


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[39] Chawla, A. S., et al. Anti-inflammatory action of ferulic acid and its esters in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 25(3):187-189, 1987.

[40] Galati, E. M., et al. Biological effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid. (Note I): antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. Farmaco. 40(11):709-712, 1994.

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[43] Selloum, L., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 54(4):313-318, 2003.

[44] De La Puerta, R., et al. Effect of silymarin on different acute inflammation models and on leukocyte migration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 48(9):968-970, 1996.

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[48] Kim, Y. H., et al. The anti-inflammatory effects of methylsulfonylmethane on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. Biol Pharm Bull. 32(4):651-656, 2009.

[49] Lee, H. A., et al. Alpha-lipoic acid modulates NF-kB activity in human monocytic cells by direct interaction with DNA. Experimental Gerontology. 37(2-3):401-410, 2002.

[50] Reifen, R. Vitamin A as an anti-inflammatory agent. Proc Nutr Soc. 61(3):397-400, 2002.

[51] Bertollo, C. M., et al. Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of riboflavin in different experimental models. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2006.

[52] Morris, M. S., et al. Vitamin B-6 intake is inversely related to, and the requirement is affected by, inflammation status. Journal of Nutrition. 140(1):103-110, 2010.

[53] Jialal, I., et al. Is vitamin C an antiinflammatory agent? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 83:525-526, 2006.

[54] Lefebvre, D’Hellencourt, C., et al. Vitamin D3 inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide production by the EOC13 microglial cell line. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 71(4):575-582, 2003.

[55] Huey, K. A., et al. In vivo vitamin E administration attenuates interleukin-6 and interleukin-1â responses to an acute inflammatory insult in mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle. Experimental Physiology. 93(12):1263-1272, 2008.

[56] Yam, M. L., et al. Tocotrienols suppress proinflammatory markers and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Lipids. 2009.

[57] Jiang, Q., et al. Gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB J. 17(8):816-822, 2003.

[58] Ohsaki, Y., et al. Vitamin K suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 70(4):926-932, 2006.

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