Chronic Inflammation

image_pdfimage_print

Inflammation is a defensive reaction or a complex biological response to a specific infectious agent, toxin, or injury. As a mechanism of innate immunity, inflammation is a stereotyped response.

Inflammation can be classified as either:

  • Acute, or
  • Systemic or Chronic

Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli at the cellular level by a variety of pro- and anti- inflammatory chemicals called cytokines. After an injury, these cytokines in the blood are elevated. The healing process then begins and the inflammation begins to subside and the inflammatory chemicals in the blood return to normal.

Systemic or chronic inflammation occurs when there are inflammatory chemicals in the blood for no reason resulting in a chronic state of low-grade inflammation.

Systemic inflammation can be caused by environmental toxins, poor dietary choices, poor nutrition, detrimental bacteria and fungi exposure.

Compounds that researched and studied for their potential ability to prevent or minimize chronic inflammation:

  • Alkaloids
    • Berbamine [1]
    • Berberine [2]
    • Capsaicin [3]
    • Gentianine [4]
    • Taspine [5]
  • Amino Acids
    • Arginine [6]
    • Glutamine [7]
    • Glycine [8]
    • Tryptophan [9]
  • Carbohydrates
    • Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA-A) [10]
    • Glucosamine Sulfate [11]
  • Carotenoids
    • Astaxanthin [12]
    • Lycopene [13]
  • Enzymes
    • Pancreatic Enzymes [14]
    • Bromelain (enteric coated) [15]
    • Pancreatin [16]
    • Papain [17]
    • Serrapeptase [18]
  • Lipids
    • Boswellic Acid [19]
    • Chamazulene [20]
    • Glycyrrhetinic Acid [21]
    • Glycyrrhizin [22]
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids [23]
    • Alpha-Linolenic Acid (LNA) [24]
    • Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) [25]
    • Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) [26]
  • Minerals
    • Magnesium [27]
    • Selenium [28]
    • Zinc [29]
  • Organic Acids
    • Ferulic Acid [30]
    • Rosmarinic Acid [31]
  • Polyphenols
    • Anthocyanidins [32]
    • Cyanidin [33]
    • Arbutin [34]
    • Curcumin [35]
    • Flavones [36]
    • Luteolin [37]
    • Nobiletin [38]
    • Gamma Oryzanol [39]
    • Hesperidin [40]
    • Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) [41]
    • Quercetin [42]
    • Rutin [43]
    • Silymarin [44]
  • Quinones
    • Coenzyme Q10 [45]
    • Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid (NDGA) [46]
  • Nootropics
    • Vinpocetine [47]
  • Sulfuric Compounds
    • Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) [48]
  • Vitamins
    • Alpha-Lipoic Acid [49]
    • Vitamin A [50]
    • Vitamin B2 [51]
    • Vitamin B6 [52]
    • Vitamin C [53]
    • Vitamin D [54]
    • Vitamin E [55]
      • Delta-Tocotrienol [56]
      • Gamma-Tocopherol [57]
    • Vitamin K [58]

References:

[1] Wong, C. W., et al. Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on subcutaneous air pouch inflammation induced by interleukin-1, tumour necrosis factor and platelet-activating factor. Agents Actions. 36(1-2):112-118, 1992.

[2] Kuo, C. L., et al. The anti-inflammatory potential of berberine in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett. 203(2):127-137, 2004.

[3] Joe, B., et al. Effect of curcumin and capsaicin on arachidonic acid metabolism and lysosomal enzyme secretion by rat peritoneal macrophages. Lipids. 32(11):1173-1180, 1997.

[4] Effects of gentianine on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

[5] Perdue, G. P., et al. South American plants II: taspine isolation and anti-inflammatory activity. J Pharm Sci. 68(1):124-126, 1979.

[6] Efron, D. T., et al. Modulation of inflammation and immunity by arginine supplements. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1(6):531-538, 1998. Department of Surgery, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, USA.

[7] Jain, P., et al. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of L-glutamine. Agen Act. 11(3):243-249, 1981.

[8] Zhong, Z., et al. L-Glycine: a novel antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective agent. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 6(2):229-240, 2003.

[9] Madan, B. R., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of L-tryptophan and DL-tryptophan. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 68:708-713, 1978.

[10] Ronca, F., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 6(Supplement A):14-21, 1998.

[11] Setnikar, I., et al. Antireactive properties of glucosamine sulfate. Arzneimittelforschung. 41(2):157-161, 1991.

[12] Ohgami, K., et al. Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 44(6):2694-2701, 2003.

[13] Bignotto, L., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on carrageenan-induced paw oedema and hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition. 2009.

[14] Ito, C., et al. [Anti-inflammatory actions of proteases, bromelain, trypsin and their mixed preparation]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 75(3):227-237, 1979.

[15] Fitzhugh, D. J., et al. Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation. Clin Immunol. 128(1):66-74, 2008.

[16] Cichoke, A. Enzymes hasten pain relief. Nutrition Science News. February 2001.

[17] Cichoke, A. Enzymes hasten pain relief. Nutrition Science News. February 2001.

[18] Mazzone, A., et al. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res. 18(5):379-388, 1990.

[19] Ammon, H. P., et al. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory actions of curcumin and boswellic acids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 38(2-3):113-119, 1993.

[20] Safayhi, H., et al. Chamazulene: an antioxidant-type inhibitor of leukotriene B4 formation. Planta Medica. 60(5):410-413, 1994.

[21] Finney, S. H., et al. The anti-inflammatory activity of glycyrrhetinic acid and derivatives. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(10):613-620, 1958.

[22] Akamatsu H, et al. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of glycyrrhizin: effect on neutrophil functions including reactive oxygen species generation. Planta Medica. 57:119-121, 1991.

[23] Lopez-Garcia, E., et al. Consumption of (n-3) fatty acids is related to plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation in women. Journal of Nutrition. 134(7):1806-1811, 2004.

[24] Takemura, N., et al. Dietary, but not topical, alpha-linolenic acid suppresses UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice when compared with linoleic acids. Photochem Photobiol. 76(6):657-663, 2002.

[25] Kim, Y. J., et al. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of docosahexaenoic Acid and eicosapentaenoic Acid in renal epithelial cells and macrophages. J Med Food. 10(2):225-231, 2007.

[26] Terano, T., et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid as a modulator of inflammation: effect on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. Biochem Pharmacol. 35(5):779-785, 1986.

[27] Mazur, A., et al. Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential physiopathological implications. Arch Biochem Biophys. 458(1):48-456, 2007.

[28] Duntas, L. H. Selenium and inflammation: underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Horm Metab Res. 41(6):443-447, 2009.

[29] Marone, G., et al. Physiological concentrations zinc inhibit the release of histamine from human basophils and lung mast cells. Agents Actions. 18(1-2):103-106, 1986.

[30]Chawla, A. S., et al. Anti-inflammatory action of ferulic acid and its esters in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 25(3):187-189, 1987.

[31] Inoue, K., et al. Effects of volatile constituents of a rosemary extract on allergic airway inflammation related to house dust mite allergen in mice. Int J Mol Med. 16(2):315-319, 2005.

[32] Cody, V., Middleton E. Jr., Harbone, J. (editors). Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine. Volume 1. Alar R Liss, Inc. New York, NY, USA, 1986. Cody, V., Middleton E. Jr., Harbone, J. (editors). Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine. Volume 2. Alar R Liss, Inc. New York, NY, USA, 1988.

[33] Tsuda, T., et al. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside suppresses nitric oxide production during a zymosan treatment in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 48(4):305-310, 2002.

[34] Kubo, M., et al. [Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. I. Combined effect of 50% methanolic extract from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry leaf) and prednisolone on immuno-inflammation.] Yakugaku Zasshi. 110(1):59-67, 1990.

[35] Ammon, H. P., et al. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory actions of curcumin and boswellic acids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 38(2-3):113-119, 1993.

[36] Read, M. A. Flavonoids: naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agents. Am J Pathol. 147:235-237, 1995.

[37] Kotanidou, A., et al. Luteolin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced lethal toxicity and expression of proinflammatory molecules in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 165(6):818-823, 2002.

[38] Lin, N., et al. Novel anti-inflammatory actions of nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, on human synovial fibroblasts and mouse macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 65(12):2065-2071, 2003.

[39] Chawla, A. S., et al. Anti-inflammatory action of ferulic acid and its esters in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 25(3):187-189, 1987.

[40] Galati, E. M., et al. Biological effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid. (Note I): antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. Farmaco. 40(11):709-712, 1994.

[41] Fine, A. M. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Alternative Medicine Review. 5(2):144-151, 2000.

[42] Comalada, M., et al. In vivo quercitrin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Eur J Immunol. 35(2):584-592, 2005.

[43] Selloum, L., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 54(4):313-318, 2003.

[44] De La Puerta, R., et al. Effect of silymarin on different acute inflammation models and on leukocyte migration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 48(9):968-970, 1996.

[45] Schmelzer, C., et al. Functions of coenzyme Q10 in inflammation and gene expression. Biofactors. 32(1-4):179-183, 2008.

[46] Chu, L. S., et al. [Nordihydroguaiaretic acid partially inhibits inflammatory responses after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.] Sheng Li Xue Bao. 62(2):101-108, 2010.

[47] Jeon, K. I., et al. Vinpocetine inhibits NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammation via an IKK-dependent but PDE-independent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010.

[48] Kim, Y. H., et al. The anti-inflammatory effects of methylsulfonylmethane on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. Biol Pharm Bull. 32(4):651-656, 2009.

[49] Lee, H. A., et al. Alpha-lipoic acid modulates NF-kB activity in human monocytic cells by direct interaction with DNA. Experimental Gerontology. 37(2-3):401-410, 2002.

[50] Reifen, R. Vitamin A as an anti-inflammatory agent. Proc Nutr Soc. 61(3):397-400, 2002.

[51] Bertollo, C. M., et al. Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of riboflavin in different experimental models. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2006.

[52] Morris, M. S., et al. Vitamin B-6 intake is inversely related to, and the requirement is affected by, inflammation status. Journal of Nutrition. 140(1):103-110, 2010.

[53] Jialal, I., et al. Is vitamin C an antiinflammatory agent? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 83:525-526, 2006.

[54] Lefebvre, D’Hellencourt, C., et al. Vitamin D3 inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide production by the EOC13 microglial cell line. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 71(4):575-582, 2003.

[55] Huey, K. A., et al. In vivo vitamin E administration attenuates interleukin-6 and interleukin-1â responses to an acute inflammatory insult in mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle. Experimental Physiology. 93(12):1263-1272, 2008.

[56] Yam, M. L., et al. Tocotrienols suppress proinflammatory markers and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Lipids. 2009.

[57] Jiang, Q., et al. Gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB J. 17(8):816-822, 2003.

[58] Ohsaki, Y., et al. Vitamin K suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 70(4):926-932, 2006.


    Print This Post Print This Post