Category Archives: Musculoskeletal


Probiotics S. salivarius K12 and S. salivarius M18 Strengthen Oral Health

The mouth is colonized by 200 to 300 bacterial species, but only a limited number of these species participate in dental decay (caries) or periodontal disease.   An imbalance of good bacteria and bad bacteria in the mouth is considered dysbiosis in the mouth and is thought to be an important cause of periodontal disease and dental decay.

Dental decay is due to the irreversible solubilization of tooth mineral by acid produced by certain bacteria that adhere to the tooth surface in bacterial communities known as dental plaque.

The main bad bacteria associated with dental decay is Streptococcus mutans.  1 

A number of other types of bacteria, such as Actinomyces viscosus and A. naeslundii, live in the mouth, where they are part of a sticky substance called plaque.

Image result for Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus mutans strain

Streptococcus mutans is the primary causal agent and the pathogenic species responsible for dental caries (tooth decay or cavities) specifically in the initiation and development stages.  2

Advanced periodontal disease has been linked to many chronic diseases, including:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cancer
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Osteoporosis

Researchers have investigated the potential of probiotics to restore the good bacterial in the oral cavity.  These particular probiotic strains displace the bad bacteria, thus eliminating dysbiosis and restoring the healthy oral flora.

Certain Probiotics Strengthen Oral Health

A number of research studies have shown that two specific strains of Streptococcus salivarius, that are normally found in the mouth, may improve oral health.  These two strains are:

  • Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) strain M18  (BLIS M18)
  • Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) strain K12  (BLIS K12)

These two strains specifically reduce cariogenic and periodontal pathogen levels in the mouth.  This is accomplished by antimicrobial agents that the strains produce and are termed bactericon-like-inhibitory substances (BLIS), otherwise known as lantibiotics.  There are three types of BLIS that the two strains produce in the oral cavity:

  • Salivaricin A
  • Salivaricin B
  • Salivaricin 9

Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) strain K12 is a potent BLIS producer, specifically Salivaricin A (bacteriostatic) and Salivaricin B (bactericidal). 

Both strains are able to produce BLIS antimicrobials in the mouth, however, BLIS K12 is more targeted to ear, nose, throat and immune health while BLIS M18 primarily supports dental health.

Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) strain M18  (BLIS M18) 

Unfortunately only about two percent of the global population has the Streptococcus salivarius necessary to make the M18 peptides.  This small populace comprise people who rarely experience plaque or tooth decay.

Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) strain M18 (BLIS M18) has the ability to break up plaque and neutralize acid that harms teeth and gums.  BLIS M18 produces two unique enzymes that contribute to support for dental health:

  • Urease – neutralizes that lactic acid that is produced the oral cavity by S. mutans.  3
  • Dextranase –  breaks down plaque biofilms caused by S. mutans and inhibits the development of dextrans or extracellular polysaccharides  4

BLIS M18 also corrects and maintains the oral cavity pH.  A more acidic pH oral cavity can lead to tooth demineralization.

BLIS M18 is a potent producer of BLIS or lantibiotics, which destroy disease causing bacteria in the oral cavity.  5  6

A recent study from January 2015 published in the International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences showed that M18 probiotic lozenges were efficacious in reducing both moderate to severe gingivitis and moderate periodontitis.  7 

Twenty eight subjects, of both sexes, were selected and divided into 4 groups (2 test groups and 2 control groups).  All 28 subjects had severe gingivitis and moderate periodontitis.  For 30 days, the Test subjects were given a M18 lozenge and the Control group did not receive a lozenge.  Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index and probing pocket depth were recorded and assessed at baseline, day 15, 30, 45 and day 60.

The Test group showed significant reduction in all parameters when compared to that of Control group. After stopping probiotic administration on day 30, the test group showed a significant increase in all the clinical parameters except probing pocket depth on day 45 and day 60.

The Test subjects saw improvement in three areas:

  • less plaque
  • better gingival health
  • less bleeding on probing

Specifically, for the Test subjects, the results were promising in improving all four of these commonly used assessments of periodontal health:

  • The plaque index score decreased 44% by day 30
  • The gingival index score decreased 42% by day 30
  • The sulcular bleeding index score decreased 53% by day 30
  • The probing pocket depth decreased 20% by day 30

Even after 30 days after stopping the lozenges, the Test subjects showed good scores on the 4 indices.  This indicates that M18 has the ability to colonize the oral cavity after using the lozenges.

Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) strain K12 (BLIS K12)  8

Streptococcus salivarius K12 is a strain isolated from the throat of a New Zealand child (who had evidence of exceptional throat health for several years), and is capable of producing two distinct lantibiotics bacteriocins:  9

  • salivaricin A2
  • salivaricin B

The K12 strain is not only effective against S. pyogenes but also inhibits the growth of pathogens such as:

  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • S. pneumoniae
  • Moraxella catarrhalis

These four pathogens are responsible for almost all bacterial pharyngotonsillitis cases in children and adults.  10 

BLIS K12 is a probiotic primarily used for the oral cavity (mouth) and upper respiratory tract and has now been clinically documented to reduce the incidence of strep throat infections in both adults and children.

Streptococcus salivarius: the probiotic for all ages. Diseases that may be alleviated by Streptococcus salivarius probiotics and the ages at which they generally tend to manifest.  (Source:  Developing Oral Probiotics From Streptococcus salivarius)

BLIS K12 attaches to cells in the oral cavity and colonizes the oral cavity and crowds out the bad bacteria.  This effect equalizes the flora in the oral cavity and allows room for the good bacteria to thrive.

Advantages of BLIS K12:

  • Helps maintain mouth and throat health
  • Helps maintain upper respiratory tract health
  • Naturally supports breath freshness  

Enhancing the Function of Cartilage

Cartilage consists of dense, semi-opaque gray or white flexible connective tissue produced by a matrix of cells called Chondrocytes. Cartilage does not contain blood vessels or nerves.

Cartilage is found in:

  • Bronchial tubes
  • Ear
  • Intervertebral discs
  • Joints between bones
  • Nose
  • Rib cage

Cartilage is classified in three types:

  • Elastic cartilage
  • Fibrocartilage
  • Hyaline cartilage


Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of new and the breaking down of old cartilage.

Specialized cells called chondrocytes produce ground substance that is rich in proteoglycan and elastin fibers. Ground substance is primarily composed of:

  • Water
  • Glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronan)
  • Proteoglycans
  • Glycoproteins

There are certain substances that may damage cartilage, especially if taken in excess.

Table: Substances that May Damage Cartilage

Damaged Cartilage










Excessive Interlukin 1 (IL-1 beta)



Excessive Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha)






Prostaglandin E2






COX-2 Inhibitors (long term use)



Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)


There are certain substances that may enhance the function of cartilage.

Table:  Nutraceuticals that Enhance the Function of Cartilage







Amino Acids




S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe)






Chondroitin Sulfate (CSA)



Glucosamine Sulfate









Silicon (orthosilicic acid)








Sulfuric Compounds




Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)






Vitamin C



Vitamin D



Vitamin E


Informational Reference:

Cartilage Health

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Parkinson’s Disease: Natural Substances

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown.

Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom.

The downloadable document (PDF) below provides a Table that lists the researched and recognized natural substances that have been studied for the Parkinson’s Disease:

Parkinson’s Disease – Natural Substances*  (PDF)

*The contents of this document have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Any substances referred to in this document are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your treating doctor. BioFoundations does not dispense medical advice, prescribe, or diagnose illness. If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, consult your physician.

Note: PDF files require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader

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Parkinson’s Disease: Potential Causes

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown.

Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom.

The downloadable document (PDF) below provides a Table that lists the researched and recognized potential causes of Parkinson’s disease:

Parkinson’s Disease – Potential Causes (PDF)

Note: PDF files require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader

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Calcium-Collagen Chelate: Evidence for Bone Reversal Properties

A study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food in March 2015 showed:

“that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.” 

The authors of the study concluded that:

“these results support the use of calcium collagen chelate in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.”

KoACTTM is a patented compound of collagen peptides and calcium. This unique ingredient was found to increase both bone strength and bone mineral density in a preclinical animal studies and a recently completed human study. *

KoACTTM is has been awarded three US patents 7,495,076; 7,608,588; 7,759,310.

A human clinical trial has been conducted at Florida State University with Dr. Bahram H. Arjmandi, PhD, RD. Dr. Arjmandi is the Margaret A. Sitton Professor and Chair of the Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences at FSU.

KoACTTM significantly improved bone metabolic balance indicator, BAP/TRAP5b ratio, while calcium did not. This improved bone metabolism is likely through improved bone synthesis and reduced bone resorption, as evidenced via increased Bone synthesis biomarkers: BAP and CICP, and reduced bone resorption bone biomarker: TRAP.


A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

Evidence for Bone Reversal Properties of a Calcium- Collagen Chelate, a Novel Dietary Supplement


KoACTTM Calcium Collagen Chelate – Swansons


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Eggshell Membrane for the Treatment of Joint and Connective Tissue Pain

Eggshell membrane is a dietary supplement made from chicken eggs. It is used for :

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Stiffness and pain of the joints

The membrane is the clear film lining the eggshell, visible when one peels a boiled egg. Eggshell membrane is composed of: [1]

  • Collagen
  • Glycosaminoglycans
    • Chondroitin sulfate
    • Dermatan sulfate
  • Sulfated glycoproteins
    • Glucosamine
  • Hyaluronic acid
  • Sialic acid
  • Desmosine
  • Isodesmosine
  • Ovotransferrin
  • Lysyl oxidase
  • Lysozyme
  • β-N-acetylglucosaminidase

Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a possible new effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue (JCT) disorders. Supplementation with NEM®, 500 mg taken once daily, significantly reduced pain, both rapidly (seven days) and continuously (30 days).

It also showed clinically meaningful results from a brief responder analysis, demonstrating that significant proportions of treated patients may be helped considerably from NEM® supplementation. [2]

The Clinical Trial Registration numbers for these trials are: NCT00750230 and NCT00750854.


[1] Eggshell membrane: a possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies.

[2] Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies

NEM Brand Eggshell Membrane Effective in the Treatment of Pain Associated with Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: Results from a Six Center, Open Label German Clinical Study


100% Natural Eggshell Membrane – Swansons

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Are Your Fibroblasts Creating Adequate Collagen?

A fibroblast is the most common type of cell found in connective tissue. Fibroblasts creates and secretes collagen proteins that are used to maintain a structural framework for many tissues.

The aging process interferes with the number of fibroblasts as well as the process and functionality of existing fibroblasts in the skin. [1] Between birth and the age of 80, fibroblasts can decrease by at least 50%.

Cross-linking and glycation can also destroy the fibroblasts in the skin. [2]

Enhancing the function of fibroblasts is very important and there are a number of identified substances that can be consumed to accomplish this goal.

Table:  Nutraceuticals and Herbs that Enhance the

Function of Fibroblasts        





Nutraceuticals and Herbs


Amino Acids













Gotu Kola



Green Tea



Ginko Biloba



Indian Gooseberry (Amla)
























Vitamin B3



Vitamin B5



Vitamin C


Collagen is Created by Fibroblasts

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues.


Collagen Triple Helix

Collagen is mostly found in:

  • Blood vessels
  • Bones
  • Cartilage
  • Corneas
  • Dentin in teeth
  • Endomysium
  • Gut
  • Intervertebral discs
  • Ligaments
  • Muscle tissue
  • Skin
  • Tendons

Collagen is an important building block in the body. It comprises:

  • 25% – 35% of the protein of the body
  • 75% of the protein of the skin
  • 2% of muscle tissue
  • 6% of tendinous muscles
  • 30% of bone
  • 40% of blood vessels
  • 90% of ligaments
  • 80% of tendons
  • 70% of cartilage

There are 28 types of collagen that have been identified.  The five most common types are:

  • Type I: skin, tendon, vascular ligature, organs, bone (main component of the organic part of bone)
  • Type II: cartilage (main collagenous component of cartilage)
  • Type III: reticulate (main component of reticular fibers), commonly found alongside type I.
  • Type IV: forms basal lamina, the epithelium-secreted layer of the basement membrane.
  • Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta

Collagen contains 18 amino-acids, including 8 out of 9 essential amino-acids. It is characterized by the predominance of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, which represent about 50% of the total amino-acid content.

  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Alanine
  • Hydroxyproline
  • Glutamic acid
  • Arginine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Serine
  • Lysine
  • Leucine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Isoleucine
  • Hydroxylysine
  • Methionine
  • Histidine
  • Tyrosine
  • Cysteine

The most common collagen polypeptide chain in the amino acid sequence of collagen are glycine-proline-X and glycine-X-hydroxyproline. Lysine, in its pure form or modified to hydroxylysine, is also found in collagen. Glycine is found at almost every third residue. Proline makes up about 17% of collagen.

Collagen contains two uncommon derivative amino acids not directly inserted during translation. These amino acids Hydroxyproline derived from proline and Hydroxylysine derived from lysine

Both hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine are formed via the enzyme-catalyzed oxidations of the proline and lysine amino acid side chains, which occur after the collagen polypeptide has been synthesized. These enzymatic reactions require as cofactors:

  • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
  • Silicon

The Importance of Silicon as a Cofactor in Collagen Synthesis

Orthosilicic Acid (also known as Monomeric Silica) (Si(OH)4) is a soluble form of Silicon that has been shown to be highly bioavailable. Orthosilica Acid consists of 3% elemental Silicon (as Orthosilicic acid) in a solution of 70 percent choline, HCl and water. It is known as Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.

Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid has been shown to be a superior form of bioavailable silicon for collagen synthesis. In a study conducted in 1997 by M.R. Calomme, they

“demonstrated that orthosilicic acid was more effective than food for increasing silicon levels in the bloodstream in in collagen sythesis. Experimental and control calves were fed a standard milk formula containing normal levels of silicon for 23 weeks. One group of calves was given an additional 280 – 380 mg of orthosilicic acid per gram of body weight twice per day. The dosage was increased as the calves grew. At the end of the study the silicon levels in the blood of calves receiving orthosilicic acid was 70% higher than that of controls. Skin collagen content was significantly greater in calves receiving orthosilicic acid.” [3] [4]

Hydrolyzed Collagen

Ingesting hydrolyzed collagen, which is the common form of collagen products, has been substantiated in allowing the fibroblasts in producing collagen. [5] The hydrolyzed collagen contains all of the amino acids that comprise collagen so when ingesting it will provide the fibroblasts with the necessary amino acids to create collagen.

It is important to note that the cofactors that fibroblasts use to create collagen must also be consumed with the hydrolyzed collagen, namely Vitamin C and Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid in order for complete synthesis of collagen.


[1] Marked aging-related decline in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in human skin fibroblasts

[2]Effect of advanced glycation end-products on cell proliferation and cell death

[3] Calomme, M. R., et al. Supplementation of calves with stabilized orthosilicic acid. Effect on Silicon, Ca, Mg, and P concentrations in serum and the collagen concentration in skin and cartilage. Biol Trace Elem Res. 56:153-165, 1997.

[4] Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

[5] Matsuda, N.; Koyama, Y., Hosaka, Y., Ueda, H., Watanabe, T., Araya, T., Irie, S. and Takehana K. (2006). “Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in the dermis”. Journal of nutrition vitaminology 52 (3): 211–215. doi:10.3177/jnsv.52.211

Postlethwaite, A.E.; Seyer, J.M.; Kang, A.H. (1978). “Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75 (2): 871–875. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.2.871. PMC 411359. PMID 204938.

Shigemura, Y.; K Iwai; F Morimatsu; T Iwamoto; T Mori; C Oda; T Taira; EY Park; Y Nakamura; K Sato (2009). “Effect of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a food-derived collagen peptide in human blood, on growth of fibroblasts from mouse skin”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2): 444–449. doi:10.1021/jf802785h. PMID 19128041



Vital ProteinsTM – Collagen Peptides

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The Performance Enhancing Molecule Known as Beta-Alanine

Beta-alanine is a modified version of the amino acid alanine. Once ingested, it turns into the molecule carnosine, which acts as a potent acid buffer in the body.

Carnosine is stored in body cells and released in response to drops in pH. Increasing body stores of carnosine can protect against diet-induced drops in pH (which might occur from ketone production in ketosis, for example) and protect from exercise-induced lactic acid production.

By buffering lactic acid, beta-alanine has been shown to enhance performance in muscular endurance.

Informational References:

Beta-Alanine (Beta-Alanine)

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