Category Archives: Mineralization


Mineral Analysis of Unrefined Sea Salt Products: Potential Electrolyte Replenishment?

Electrolytes are minerals in the blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.

Electrolytes affect the:

  • Amount of water in the body
  • Acidity of the blood (pH)
  • Muscle function
  • Regulate function, our
  • Body’s hydration
  • Blood pressure
  • Rebuilding of damaged tissue

The primary ions of electrolytes consist of the following macrominerals:

  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Potassium (K+)
  • Calcium (Ca2+)
  • Magnesium (Mg2+)
  • Chloride (Cl−)
  • Hydrogen phosphate (HPO42−)
  • Hydrogen carbonate(HCO3−)

Electrolyte levels are kept constant by our kidneys and several hormones – even when our bodies trigger changes. When we exercise we sweat and lose electrolytes, mainly sodium and potassium.

To maintain electrolyte concentrations of our body fluids constant, these electrolytes must be replaced. Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of sodium and potassium and replace lost electrolytes. Excess electrolyte levels in our blood are filtered out by our kidneys.

Replenishing electrolytes by consuming sea salt can create an imbalance of certain electrolytes, typically calcium, potassium and magnesium.  Three popular sea salt products contain all the primary electrolytes (except hydrogen carbonate).  However, the percentage of sodium and chloride is much higher than the the other electrolytes.

The following Table lists the percentage of electrolytes in three popular sea salt products.  The quantities are listed in percentages per 1000 milligrams.  Therefore if sodium is calculated at 38.0%, then this would mean that there is 380mg per 1 gram of sea salt.  

Micromineral Analysis Comparison of Salt Products

Micromineral Analysis Comparison of Salt Products   
MineralRedmond Real SaltTMCeltic Sea SaltTMPink Himalayan SaltTM
Data based on Analysis Datasheet from each Company. PDF downloads at end of post.

For all three products, the sodium chloride content is from 89%  to 98%.  The magnesium, potassium and calcium content is quite low compared to the sodium chloride content.  For example, the potassium content is no more than 10 mg  or 50 mg per 1 gram of sea salt.  This amount of potassium is quite low per gram, especially when the RDA of potassium is 4.7 grams according to the Institute of Medicine.

The following Table list the RDA for the macrominerals (electrolytes) according to the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine which published the Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes for Elements (Minerals). 

Macrominerals (Quantity in body and RDA)

MacromineralQuantity present in average (70 kg/154.4lbs) personRDA (mg) 31-50 year MaleRDA (mg) 31-50 year Female
Calcium1.1 kg1000 mg1000 mg
Chlorine199 g2300 mg2300 mg
Magnesium35 g420 mg320 mg
Phosphorus750 g700 mg700 mg
Potassium225 g4700 mg4700 mg
Sulfur150 gNo RDANo RDA
Sodium90 g1500 mg1500 mg
Silicone30 gNo RDANo RDA

The Table below lists the RDA of the electrolytes and the percentage of each electrolyte.  It is apparent that potassium is the electrolyte with the highest percentage of 44% with sodium chloride at 36% of the total RDA.

Percentage of RDA of Electrolytes

MineralRDA (mg) 31-50 year MalePercentage of Total
Calcium1000 mg9%
Potassium4700 mg44%
Sodium1500 mg14%
Chlorine2300 mg22%
Magnesium420 mg4%
Phosphorus700 mg7%
Sodium Chloride (Salt)Combined36%
Totals10,620 mg100%

Informational References:

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements (Institute of Medicine)  (PDF)

Redmond Real SaltTM Element Analysis (PDF)

Celtic Sea SaltTM Analysis (PDF)

Ancient Ocean® – Himalayan Salt Chemical Specification Analysis (PDF)

Note: PDF files require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader


Magnesium Bicarbonate Water as a Bioavailable Source of Magnesium

Magnesium’s Role in the Body

Magnesium plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health and has numerous functions in the body.  Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to:  1

  • blood pressure
  • cardiac excitability
  • cellular energy production and storage
  • DNA and RNA synthesis
  • glucose and insulin metabolism
  • muscular contraction
  • nerve transmission
  • neuromuscular conduction
  • protein synthesis
  • reproduction
  • stabilizing mitochondrial membranes
  • vasomotor tone

The dietary recommendation (Recommended Dietary Allowances/RDA) for magnesium is:

  • Adult men        400 to 420 mg daily
  • Adult women   310 to 320 mg daily
Table 1. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Magnesium
Life Stage Age Males (mg/day) Females (mg/day)
Infants 0-6 months 30 (AI) 30 (AI)
Infants 7-12 months 75 (AI) 75 (AI)
Children 1-3 years 80 80
Children 4-8 years 130 130
Children 9-13 years 240 240
Adolescents 14-18 years 410 360
Adults 19-30 years 400 310
Adults 31 years and older 420 320
Pregnancy 18 years and younger 400
Pregnancy 19-30 years 350
Pregnancy 31 years and older 360
Breast-feeding 18 years and younger 360
Breast-feeding 19-30 years 310
Breast-feeding 31 years and older 320

Source: LINUS PAULING INSTITUTE Micronutrient Information Center 

In the U.S., consumption of magnesium is far below the RDA.  A study conducted in 2012 indicated that forty-eight percent (48%) of the U.S. population consumed less than the required amount of magnesium from food in 2005-2006, and the figure was down from 56% in 2001-2002. They also found that over 30 years, surveys indicate rising calcium-to-magnesium food-intake ratios among adults and the elderly in the United States, excluding intake from supplements, which favor calcium over magnesium.  2 

A magnesium deficit is often associated with the aging process.  The total body magnesium and total magnesium in the intracellular compartment tend to decrease with age. 

One way to determine if you have a magnesium deficit is to take the blood test called RBC magnesium.  This test is used to evaluate magnesium levels in red blood cells and is the most precise way to assess intracellular magnesium status.

Magnesium Deficit is Associated with Disease

Chronic magnesium deficits have been linked to an increased risk of numerous preclinical and clinical outcomes, including:  3

  • alterations in lipid metabolism
  • asthma
  • atherosclerosis
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • cardiovascular mortality
  • chronic fatigue
  • depression
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • glucose intolerance
  • hypertension
  • inflammation
  • insulin resistance
  • ischemic heart disease
  • neuropsychiatric disorders
  • oxidative stress
  • platelet aggregation/thrombosis
  • stroke
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • vascular remodeling

Magnesium’s role in cardiovascular health is critical.  Dietary magnesium intake has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality risk in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease.  4 


Figure 1: Role of magnesium and calcium in the pathophysiology of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis.  (Source:  Magnesium and Vascular Changes in Hypertension)

Magnesium Bicarbonate as a Bioavailable Form of Magnesium Supplementation

There are many forms of supplemental and non-supplemental magnesium.  One form that is easy to consume and is considered bioavailable is magnesium bicarbonate.  Short term regular ingestion of magnesium bicarbonate supplemented water provides a source of orally available magnesium.  5  

Magnesium bicarbonate exists only in aqueous solution, so it can never be available in pill/capsule form.

Magnesium bicarbonate (Mg(HCO3)2) is the bicarbonate salt of magnesium. It is formed through the reaction of carbonic acid and magnesium hydroxide.

The chemical formula for magnesium bicarbonate is: 

Mg(OH)2 + 2 CO2 → Mg(HCO3)2

If magnesium bicarbonate is dried, the result will be magnesium carbonate.  Magnesium carbonate can be found as a supplement in powdered form. 

Magnesium bicarbonate can be made at home with just two ingredients:

  • Seltzer water (club soda)  (Carbonic acid)
  • Milk of Magnesia  (Magnesium hydroxide)

Following is the recipe for magnesium bicarbonate:

  • Buy 1 bottle of Milk of Magnesia – The bottle of Milk of Magnesia will have 1200 mg magnesium hydroxide per 15 ml or 1 tablespoon. 
  • Buy 1 liter of Club Soda (unflavored and low sodium)

1.  Chill the club soda for 1 hour in the refrigerator.

2.  Shake the Milk of Magnesia well before using.

3.  Take club soda out of the refrigerator.

4.  Measure 3 Tbsp or 45ml of Milk of Magnesia.  Use plastic cap provided by manufacturer.  Three tablespoons is a total of 3600 mg of Milk of Magnesia in the 1 liter bottle of club soda.

5.   Pour the 3 TBSP – 45 ml of Milk of Magnesia into the 1 liter bottle. Replace the cap.

6.  Shake if 1 liter bottle vigorously for at least 1 minute or longer.  The sides of the plastic bottle may pull in when finished shaking. 

7.  Shake the bottle until all sediment has dissolved.   If there is some small sediment at the bottom of the bottle that is just unconverted Milk of Magnesia. 

8.  Place bottle back into the refrigerator.

The 1 liter bottle of magnesium bicarbonate is concentrated and should be diluted with water.  It is recommended to drink at least 4 ounces of the magnesium bicarbonate twice per day by adding it to your regular water consumption.


Shilajit: Inhibits Formation of and Untangles Tau Filaments

Shilajit is a natural mineral rich substance that is thick and tar-like with usually a brown to black color, but sometimes lighter colored and even white.  The sticky substance is excreted from rock formations in mountain sides.

The composition of Shilajit is quite unique and is considered a phytocomplex rich in fulvic acid.  It is hypothesized that Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from a combination of the following species:  1  2

  • Asterella
  • Barbula
  • Dumortiera
  • Euphorbia royleana
  • Fissidens
  • Marchantia
  • Minium
  • Pellia
  • Plagiochasma
  • Stephenrencella-Anthoceros
  • Thuidium
  • Trifolium repens

Shilajit is found in the following regions of the world:

  • Afghanistan
  • Altai Mountains, a mountain range in Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together
  • Caucasus mountains
  • Chile Andean Mountains
  • Gilgit Baltistan Mountains in Pakistan
  • Himalayans mountains between India and Nepal
  • Russia

Shilajit (mineral pitch) excreted from the mountain side

The are a variety of translations of Shilajit, which is originally from Sanskirt:

  • Chinese: 五灵脂
  • English:  mineral pitch or mineral wax
  • Farsi:  مملایی, brag zhun
  • Hindi: शिलाजीत and salajeet
  • Latin:  black asphaltum, Asphaltum punjabianum
  • Mongolian:  Барагшун
  • Persian:  (مومیا), mūmiyā
  • Russian:  мумиё, variably transliterated as mumijo, mumio, momia, and moomiyo, mumiyo
  • Sanskrit:  शिलाजतु, śilājatu
  • Tibetan:  བྲག་ཞུན་, chao-tong, wu ling zhi
  • Urdu:  سلاجیت‎

Shilajit has a long tradition of consumption by local peoples in these regions, especially in Nepal and the North of India.  In these particular regions, children are known to take it with milk in their breakfast.

The Sherpa are an ethnic group from the Himalayas, the most mountainous region of Nepal.  They are claimed to consume Shilajit as part of their diet.  Sherpas are internationally known for their mountain climbing abilities and for their hardiness, expertise, and experience at very high altitudes.   They are also known for being very strong men with very high levels of a healthy longevity.

The primary active ingredients of Shilajit are complex and is composed mainly of humic substances, including fulvic acid that accounts for about 60% to 80% of the total.  Researchers have discovered the following substances in Shilajit:


aromatic carboxylic acids

benzoic acid





dibenzo–alpha–pyrones (DBP)

fulvic Acid

hippuric acid

humic Acid











trace minerals

vitamins A, B, C and P


Neuroprotective properties of Shilajit

Researchers have determined that Shilajit’s significant levels of fulvic acid (60%-80%) lend to its healing properties, since fulvic acid has known strong antioxidant properties.  3  4 

There appears to be scientific evidence that Shilajit has the potential to reverse certain neurological changes, especially Alzheimer’s disease. 

A number of studies demonstrate how Shilajit can tackle Alzheimer’s disease:

Study 1- Acetylcholinerase Inhibitor

Shilajit has been shown to increase acetylcholine in the brain by reducing the levels of acetylcholinerase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. 

Study 2 – Inhibits Formation of Tau Filaments and Untangles Tau Filaments

In a study from October 2013, researchers demonstrate that fulvic acid, the main constituent on Shilajit, inhibits the buildup of tau proteins.  Tau protein is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is the abnormal buildup of hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins creating tangles of paired helical filaments and straight filaments within brain cells.  Fulvic acid strongly interferes with tau aggregation, and interestingly an increase in neurite outgrowth has been observed in neural cell cultures exposed to this natural compound.   6

In addition to Shilajit’s (fulvic acid) ability to inhibit the formation of tau filaments, researchers also found that it can disaggregate them, in other words, break the tau filaments apart or untangle the filaments.  7  8

The blocking of tau self-aggregation opens the door to a new path towards Alzheimer’s therapy.

It is important for consumers to be aware of the quality of the Shilajit that they consume.  Only consume properly (highly) processed Shilajit, as unprocessed crude Shilajit may contain undesirable contaminants. Consuming unpure and unprocessed Shilajit may lead to risks of intoxication given the presence of mycotoxin, heavy metal ions, polymeric quinones (oxidant agents), and free radicals.

Studies have been conducted that certain ayurvedic products including Shilajit may contain detectable heavy metals levels such as lead, mercury, and arsenic.  9 

Informational References:

Shilajit:  Unraveling the Mystery (Sabinsa Corporation) 

PRIMAVIE® (High Quality Purified Shilajit)


Jarrow – Shilajit Fulvic Acid Complex

Swanson Superior Herbs – Extra Strength Shilajit Extract (standardized to minimum 70% Fulvic acid)

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Melatonin, Magnesium, and Zinc Taken Together Improves Sleep Quality

The glymphatic system (or glymphatic clearance pathway) is a functional waste clearance pathway for the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The lymphatic system is responsible for removing extracellular proteins, excess fluid, and metabolic waste products from peripheral tissues.  1

Glymphatic flow answers the long standing question of how the sensitive neural tissue of the CNS functions in the absence of a conventional lymphatic circulation. The pathway consists of a para-arterial influx route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain parenchyma, coupled to a clearance mechanism for the removal of interstitial fluid (ISF) and extracellular solutes from the interstitial compartments of the brain and spinal cord. Exchange of solutes between the CSF and the ISF is driven by arterial pulsation and regulated during sleep by the expansion and contraction of brain extracellular space.

Clearance of soluble proteins, waste products, and excess extracellular fluid is accomplished through convective bulk flow of the ISF, facilitated by astrocytic aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels.  2


Figure 1  Mammalian Gymphatic System

A publication by L. Xie and colleagues in 2013 explored the efficiency of the glymphatic system during slow wave sleep and provided the first direct evidence that the clearance of interstitial waste products increases during the resting state. Using a combination of diffusion ionophoresis techniques pioneered by Nicholson and colleagues, in vivo 2-photon imaging, and electroencephalography to confirm the wake and sleep states, Xia and Nedergaard demonstrated that the changes in efficiency of CSF–ISF exchange between the awake and sleeping brain were caused by expansion and contraction of the extracellular space, which increased by ~60% in the sleeping brain to promote clearance of interstitial wastes such as amyloid beta.  3 4

Assuring proper sleep quality is critical to the glymphatic system.  If sleep quality is compromised, then the glymphatic system will not function effectively to detoxify the brain during sleep.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, was conducted in Pavia, Italy and the results of the study were published in the Journal of the American Geriatric Society in January 2011.  The title of the study is “The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.”   5

The objective of the clinical trial was to determine whether nightly administration of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc improves primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents.

The clinical trial consisted of forty-three participants with primary insomnia (22 in the supplemented group, 21 in the placebo group) aged 78.3 ± 3.9.  The participants took a food supplement:

  • 5 mg melatonin
  • 225 mg magnesium
  • 11.25 mg zinc

mixed with 100 g of pear pulp) or placebo (100 g pear pulp) every day for 8 weeks, 1 hour before bedtime.

The food supplement resulted in considerably better overall PSQI scores than placebo (difference between groups in change from baseline PSQI score=6.8; 95% confidence interval=5.4-8.3, P<.001). Moreover, the significant improvements in all four domains of the LSEQ (ease of getting to sleep, P<.001; quality of sleep, P<.001; hangover on awakening from sleep, P=.005; alertness and behavioral integrity the following morning, P=.001), in SDQ score (P<.001), in total sleep time (P<.001), and in SF-36 physical score (P=.006) suggest that treatment had a beneficial effect on the restorative value of sleep.

The researchers concluded that the administration of nightly melatonin, magnesium, and zinc appears to improve the quality of sleep and the quality of life in long-term care facility residents with primary insomnia.

Informational Reference:

Video:  Scientists Discover Previously Unknown Cleaning System in Brain Newer Imaging Technique Brings ‘Glymphatic System’ to Light (Jeffrey Iliff, University of Rochester Medical Center)

Video:  National Institutes of Health – Brain Opens Up The Pipes During Sleep

National Institutes of Health – Brain may flush out toxins during sleep





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Lithium Orotate

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Lithium compounds are used as a psychiatric medication. A number of salts of lithium are used as mood-stabilizing drugs, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder, where they have a role in treating depression and, particularly, of mania, both acutely and in the long term.

Lithium carbonate is the most commonly prescribed, while lithium citrate is also used in conventional pharmacological treatments. Lithium orotate , has been presented as an alternative based on the studies by Hans Nieper, M.D. [1]

A very interesting article on lithium orotate has been written by Dr. Jonathan V. Wright M.D. In this two part article, Dr. Wright provides excellent evidence for the everyday use of lithium orotate for overall neurological health.

Lithium – The Misunderstood Mineral Part 1

Lithium – The Misunderstood Mineral Part 2


[1] Nieper HA (1973). “The clinical applications of lithium orotate. A two years study”. Agressologie. 14 (6): 407–11. PMID 4607169

Informational References:

Dr. Jonathan Wright, MD – Tahoma Clinic


Lithium Orotate – Advanced Research/Nutrient Carriers

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Calcium-Collagen Chelate: Evidence for Bone Reversal Properties

A study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food in March 2015 showed:

“that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.” 

The authors of the study concluded that:

“these results support the use of calcium collagen chelate in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.”

KoACTTM is a patented compound of collagen peptides and calcium. This unique ingredient was found to increase both bone strength and bone mineral density in a preclinical animal studies and a recently completed human study. *

KoACTTM is has been awarded three US patents 7,495,076; 7,608,588; 7,759,310.

A human clinical trial has been conducted at Florida State University with Dr. Bahram H. Arjmandi, PhD, RD. Dr. Arjmandi is the Margaret A. Sitton Professor and Chair of the Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences at FSU.

KoACTTM significantly improved bone metabolic balance indicator, BAP/TRAP5b ratio, while calcium did not. This improved bone metabolism is likely through improved bone synthesis and reduced bone resorption, as evidenced via increased Bone synthesis biomarkers: BAP and CICP, and reduced bone resorption bone biomarker: TRAP.


A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

Evidence for Bone Reversal Properties of a Calcium- Collagen Chelate, a Novel Dietary Supplement


KoACTTM Calcium Collagen Chelate – Swansons


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Dietary Minerals

Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by the human body, other than the four organic basic elements:

  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen
  • Oxygen

Dietary minerals are often categorized into macrominerals and mircominerals. This categorization is based on the abundance of the meinerals in the human body.

There are 8 macrominerals that have been identified and that are required for biological activity in the human body. They include:

  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sulfur
  • Sodium
  • Chlorine
  • Magnesium
  • Silicone

There are about 19 microminerals or trace minerals that have known biological activity in the human body.

There are 8 microminerals that are considered the most important for the human body.  They  include:

  • Iron
  • Cobalt
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Manganese
  • Molybdenum
  • Iodine
  • Selenium

The other 11 microminerals that have biological activity in the human body with less importance include:

  • Barium
  • Boron
  • Chromium
  • Fluoride
  • Germanium
  • Lithium         
  • Nickel
  • Rubidium
  • Strontium
  • Tin
  • Vanadium

All other minerals that are claimed to be trace minerals have no known native biological role in the human body. A partial list of such non-biological minerals include the following:

Aluminum, Antimony, Beryllium, Bismuth, Bromine, Cadmium, Cerium, Cesium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Gallium, Hafnium, Holmium, Indium, Iridium, Lanthanum, Lutetium, Neodymium, Niobium, Osmium, Palladium, Platinum, Praseodymium, Rhenium, Rhodium, Rubidium, Ruthenium, Samarium, Scandium, Silver, Tantalum, Tellurium, Terbium ,Thallium, Thorium, Thulium, Titanium, Tungsten, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zirconium.

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine has published Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes for Elements (Minerals). 

Download:  Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements (Institute of Medicine)  (PDF)

The following Tables illustrates the Macrominerals and Microminerals and their quantity in an average human body as well as the RDA for a male and female age 31-50 years.  The Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements document lists the RDA for other age groups as well as pregnant women, lactation, infants and children.

Macrominerals (Quantity in body and RDA)

MacromineralQuantity present in average (70 kg/154.4lbs) personRDA (mg) 31-50 year MaleRDA (mg) 31-50 year Female
Calcium1.1 kg1000 mg1000 mg
Chlorine199 g2300 mg2300 mg
Magnesium35 g420 mg320 mg
Phosphorus750 g700 mg700 mg
Potassium225 g4700 mg4700 mg
Sulfur150 gNo RDANo RDA
Sodium90 g1500 mg1500 mg
Silicone30 gNo RDANo RDA

Microminerals (Quantity in body and RDA)

MicromineralQuantity present in average (70 kg/154.4lbs) personRDA (mg) 31-50 year MaleRDA (mg) 31-50 year Female
Barium22 mgnonenone
Chromium6 mg50 to 200mcg50 to 200mcg
Cobalt20 mgnonenone
Copper90 mg0.900 mg0.900 mg
Fluoride2600 mg3.8 mg3.1 mg
Iodine15 mg0.150 mg0.150 mg
Iron4200 mg8 mg8 mg
Lithium2.5 mg1 mg1 mg
Manganese13 mg2.3 mg2.3 mg
Molybdenum8 mg0.045 mg0.045 mg
Nickel11 mgnonenone
Rubidium350 mgnonenone
Selenium15 mg0.055 mg0.055 mg
Strontium320 mgnonenone
Tin15 mgNoneNone
Vanadium20 mgNoneNone
Zinc2400 mg11 mg11 mg

Note: PDF files require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader

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Are Your Fibroblasts Creating Adequate Collagen?

A fibroblast is the most common type of cell found in connective tissue. Fibroblasts creates and secretes collagen proteins that are used to maintain a structural framework for many tissues.

The aging process interferes with the number of fibroblasts as well as the process and functionality of existing fibroblasts in the skin. [1] Between birth and the age of 80, fibroblasts can decrease by at least 50%.

Cross-linking and glycation can also destroy the fibroblasts in the skin. [2]

Enhancing the function of fibroblasts is very important and there are a number of identified substances that can be consumed to accomplish this goal.

Table:  Nutraceuticals and Herbs that Enhance the

Function of Fibroblasts        





Nutraceuticals and Herbs


Amino Acids













Gotu Kola



Green Tea



Ginko Biloba



Indian Gooseberry (Amla)
























Vitamin B3



Vitamin B5



Vitamin C


Collagen is Created by Fibroblasts

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues.


Collagen Triple Helix

Collagen is mostly found in:

  • Blood vessels
  • Bones
  • Cartilage
  • Corneas
  • Dentin in teeth
  • Endomysium
  • Gut
  • Intervertebral discs
  • Ligaments
  • Muscle tissue
  • Skin
  • Tendons

Collagen is an important building block in the body. It comprises:

  • 25% – 35% of the protein of the body
  • 75% of the protein of the skin
  • 2% of muscle tissue
  • 6% of tendinous muscles
  • 30% of bone
  • 40% of blood vessels
  • 90% of ligaments
  • 80% of tendons
  • 70% of cartilage

There are 28 types of collagen that have been identified.  The five most common types are:

  • Type I: skin, tendon, vascular ligature, organs, bone (main component of the organic part of bone)
  • Type II: cartilage (main collagenous component of cartilage)
  • Type III: reticulate (main component of reticular fibers), commonly found alongside type I.
  • Type IV: forms basal lamina, the epithelium-secreted layer of the basement membrane.
  • Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta

Collagen contains 18 amino-acids, including 8 out of 9 essential amino-acids. It is characterized by the predominance of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, which represent about 50% of the total amino-acid content.

  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Alanine
  • Hydroxyproline
  • Glutamic acid
  • Arginine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Serine
  • Lysine
  • Leucine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Isoleucine
  • Hydroxylysine
  • Methionine
  • Histidine
  • Tyrosine
  • Cysteine

The most common collagen polypeptide chain in the amino acid sequence of collagen are glycine-proline-X and glycine-X-hydroxyproline. Lysine, in its pure form or modified to hydroxylysine, is also found in collagen. Glycine is found at almost every third residue. Proline makes up about 17% of collagen.

Collagen contains two uncommon derivative amino acids not directly inserted during translation. These amino acids Hydroxyproline derived from proline and Hydroxylysine derived from lysine

Both hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine are formed via the enzyme-catalyzed oxidations of the proline and lysine amino acid side chains, which occur after the collagen polypeptide has been synthesized. These enzymatic reactions require as cofactors:

  • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
  • Silicon

The Importance of Silicon as a Cofactor in Collagen Synthesis

Orthosilicic Acid (also known as Monomeric Silica) (Si(OH)4) is a soluble form of Silicon that has been shown to be highly bioavailable. Orthosilica Acid consists of 3% elemental Silicon (as Orthosilicic acid) in a solution of 70 percent choline, HCl and water. It is known as Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.

Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid has been shown to be a superior form of bioavailable silicon for collagen synthesis. In a study conducted in 1997 by M.R. Calomme, they

“demonstrated that orthosilicic acid was more effective than food for increasing silicon levels in the bloodstream in in collagen sythesis. Experimental and control calves were fed a standard milk formula containing normal levels of silicon for 23 weeks. One group of calves was given an additional 280 – 380 mg of orthosilicic acid per gram of body weight twice per day. The dosage was increased as the calves grew. At the end of the study the silicon levels in the blood of calves receiving orthosilicic acid was 70% higher than that of controls. Skin collagen content was significantly greater in calves receiving orthosilicic acid.” [3] [4]

Hydrolyzed Collagen

Ingesting hydrolyzed collagen, which is the common form of collagen products, has been substantiated in allowing the fibroblasts in producing collagen. [5] The hydrolyzed collagen contains all of the amino acids that comprise collagen so when ingesting it will provide the fibroblasts with the necessary amino acids to create collagen.

It is important to note that the cofactors that fibroblasts use to create collagen must also be consumed with the hydrolyzed collagen, namely Vitamin C and Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid in order for complete synthesis of collagen.


[1] Marked aging-related decline in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in human skin fibroblasts

[2]Effect of advanced glycation end-products on cell proliferation and cell death

[3] Calomme, M. R., et al. Supplementation of calves with stabilized orthosilicic acid. Effect on Silicon, Ca, Mg, and P concentrations in serum and the collagen concentration in skin and cartilage. Biol Trace Elem Res. 56:153-165, 1997.

[4] Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

[5] Matsuda, N.; Koyama, Y., Hosaka, Y., Ueda, H., Watanabe, T., Araya, T., Irie, S. and Takehana K. (2006). “Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in the dermis”. Journal of nutrition vitaminology 52 (3): 211–215. doi:10.3177/jnsv.52.211

Postlethwaite, A.E.; Seyer, J.M.; Kang, A.H. (1978). “Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75 (2): 871–875. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.2.871. PMC 411359. PMID 204938.

Shigemura, Y.; K Iwai; F Morimatsu; T Iwamoto; T Mori; C Oda; T Taira; EY Park; Y Nakamura; K Sato (2009). “Effect of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a food-derived collagen peptide in human blood, on growth of fibroblasts from mouse skin”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2): 444–449. doi:10.1021/jf802785h. PMID 19128041



Vital ProteinsTM – Collagen Peptides

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Magnesium-L-Threonate: High Brain Bioavailability

Magnesiun-l-threonate consists of magnesium bonded to the organic acid, threonic acid, and is denoted by the chemical formula Mg(C4H7O5)2.  

Magnesiun-l-threonate has high brain bioavailability. It is the only magnesium compound that has been shown to effectively raise the brain’s magnesium levels.

In pre-clinical models, L-threonate contained in Magnesiun-l-threonate boosted magnesium levels in spinal fluid by an impressive 15% compared to no increase with conventional magnesium.  [1]

Research on Magnesiun-l-threonate has been led by the biopharmaceutical company Magceutics of Hayward, California.  They tradmarked the product named Magtein(TM).  They began testing Magtein,’s(TM) ability to boost magnesium ion (Mg2+) levels in the brain in 2012 and the results have been impressive.   [2]


Gao Sheng-Li;Yang Xu-Wu;Chen San-Ping;Ju Zhan-Feng (2002). “Synthesis and Standard Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium L-Threonate”. Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. 18 (11): 994–997. 

Magnesium Supplement Helps Boost Brainpower, Science Daily, Feb. 2, 2010

Inna Slutsky, Nashat Abumaria, Long-Jun Wu, Chao Huang, Ling Zhang, Bo Li, Xiang Zhao, Arvind Govindarajan, Ming-Gao Zhao, Min Zhuo, Susumu Tonegawa, and Guosong Liu (2010). “Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium”. Neuron 65 (2): 165–177. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.026. PMID 20152124


Death by Calcium

Recent scientific studies now provide overwhelming proof that unequivocally confirms what many non-mainstream healthcare practitioners have long known and asserted: The regular intake of dairy and calcium supplementation promotes all known chronic degenerative diseases, and it significantly shortens life. All physicians and patients alike need to know the truth about calcium. Most people already have too much calcium in their tissues, and the incessant trumpeting of the purported health benefits of calcium supplementation and high-dairy diets must finally be exposed as marketing ploys only. The truth about calcium must finally be known.

The supplement is calcium, in any form, although some forms are more toxic than others. Furthermore, it is now clear that excess dietary calcium, as is realized with the routine ingestion of milk and other calcium-laden dairy foods, is also a toxic and life-shortening practice.

This book highlights and clearly documents the science behind the following assertions:

1. Women with the highest calcium consumption, regardless of source (diet, supplements), had a death rate two and one-half times higher than the women with lower consumption. This was a prospective study on 61,433 women followed over a 19-year period.

2. Women with osteoporosis do not have a generalized, body-wide deficiency of calcium. Rather, there is a deficiency of calcium in their bones, but the rest of their bodies have a calcium excess.

3. While calcium supplementation alone can increase the calcium density in the bones, it does not decrease the chances of an osteoporotic fracture. It is a cosmetic improvement only, and it further fuels the excess of calcium outside of the bones.

4. Typical American diets supply enough calcium for the needs of the body when blood vitamin D levels are maintained in the proper range.

5. Because of the emphasis on increased calcium intake, the typical osteoporosis patient faces a much higher chance of death from heart attack and stroke than from the consequences of an osteoporotic fracture.

6. Osteoporosis is a focal scurvy (severe vitamin C deficiency) of the bones.

7. All chronic degenerative diseases feature increased levels of calcium inside the cells of the body.

8. Measures that decrease further uptake of calcium inside the cells of the body substantially decrease the chances of death from all causes (a generalized reduction in mortality).

9. Increased calcium deposition outside of the cells, as well as increased levels of calcium inside the cells, increase the chances of malignant transformation and the development of cancer.

10. Many natural agents increase calcium in the bone, decrease calcium excesses throughout the body, and decrease the chances of death from all diseases. These include magnesium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin K, and essential fatty acids (omega-3).

11. The proper restoration of deficient levels of sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone) and thyroid hormone helps normalize calcium metabolism and also decreases the chances of death from all causes.

To recap, then, medicine has long regarded calcium supplementation as beneficial to health. In fact, although limited amounts of calcium are vital to health, excess levels of it play routine roles in the development of chronic degenerative disease, malignant transformation, and premature cell death. Whenever a cell dies, there is already excess calcium inside it. Like iron and copper, small amounts are essential, especially in helping many enzymes function normally, but larger amounts will always be toxic and increase oxidative stress wherever accumulation occurs.

About the Author

Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD is a board-certified cardiologist and the author of Primal Panacea and Curing the Incurable: Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins; plus three other groundbreaking medical books. He is one of the world’s leading vitamin C experts and frequently lectures to medical professionals all over the globe about the proper role of vitamin C and antioxidants in the treatment of a host of medical conditions and diseases.

Purchase Book: Death By Calcium

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