Antioxidants: Mechanisms and Testing

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The importance of antioxidants as molecular agents to balance and counteract oxidative stress through the scavenging of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) is well established in science.  However, the mechanism and effectiveness of antioxidants go beyond this delicate balance. 

An important article published on October 27, 2015, by Brunswick Laboratories entitled Antioxidants: Mechanisms of Action and Effectiveness, by Jasenka Piljac Zegarac, PhD delves deeper into the intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidants.  The article also distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous antioxidants by stating:

“The human body utilizes both endogenous antioxidants as well molecules ingested through diet, as its defense mechanism. Examples of endogenous antioxidants include enzymes and small molecules such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione, while vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenolics are representative of dietary antioxidants. In general, antioxidants belong to several categories, they are either: i) enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase; (ii) hormones (melatonin for example); (iii) proteins (albumin, ferritin, etc.); or (iv) small molecules (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, glutathione, uric acid, tocopherol).1

This very interesting article in its entirety can viewed at the following link:   Antioxidants: Mechanisms of Action and Effectiveness


Brunswick Laboratories is the leading company in independent BioAnalytical Testing & Research in the areas of:

  • Food and Nutrition
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Cosmetic

The company’s capabilities include:

  • Phytochemical quantification and profiling (Antioxidant testing; ORAC Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity; other phytonutrient profiling and fingerprinting)
  • Human cells based bioassays to identify health benefit potentials of a material: Anti-inflammatory, Anti-aging, Weight/diabetes management, Anti-cancer, and Antioxidant
  • Clinical studies to evaluate Oxidative Stress Reduction, Inflammation Reduction, Weight/Diabetes Management, Metabolic Syndrome Improvement, and other health functions of a material
  • General bioanalytical services: ADME/TOX, PKPD, LC-MS/MS method development, Fractionation, API identification and isolation

Jasenka Piljac Zegarac, PhD is a scientific writer and academic researcher on health and nutrition.  Her work and website can be found at The Scientist Writer


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