Monthly Archives: December 2016


Enhancing the Innate Immune System with Brolico®

Introduction to Brolico® and its Health Benefits

During a collaborative research project conducted by Imagine Global Care Co., Ltd., University of Tokyo and Genome Pharmaceuticals Institute, research scientists discovered a new phytonutrient found in and extracted from the vegetable broccoli.  The new phytonutrient is called brolico.

Brolico cannot be absorbed by the body by eating broccoli, since it is expelled by the body without being absorbed.  Because of this limitation, scientists developed a patented extraction method which resulted in a supplemental form of brolico called Brolico® which can be absorbed by the body.  The Brolico® extraction method is patented under US Patent number 8,313,779, which was recorded in November 2012.

In various studies of the Brolico® supplement, researchers discovered that the brolico nutrient is able to produce high levels of cellular activity within crucial white blood cells, in effect, raising innate or natural immunity.  In fact, the Brolico® supplement produced record-breaking levels of activation among crucial white blood cells such as:

  • natural killer cells (NK cells)
  • neutrophils

The effects of Brolico® are very promising on immune system function:

  • Increases NK cell activity approximately 60 times more than fucoidan*
  • Helps and supports the defense mechanism of your immune system*
  • Increases natural killer cell activity*
  • Increase and elevates neutrophils*
  • Decreases the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin 6 (IL-6)*
  • Promoted elimination of infected or harmful cells from the body*

The Human Immune System and Innate Immune System

The human immune system is a defense system that is composed of many biological structures and processes with the purpose of protecting against disease.  The immune system is classified into two sub-systems:

  • Innate immune system
  • Adaptive immune system

Image result for Innate immune system

Source:  StudyBlue

The innate immune system, also called the natural or native immune system, is based on the genetic constitution of the person, without any external stimulation or previous infection.  It is considered the first-line of defense of the body’s biological system from various pathogens.  The innate immune system does not provide long-lasting immunity to the host, but provides immediate defense against infection.

Innate immunity is divided into two types:

  • Non-Specific innate immunity: A degree of natural resistance to all infections in general
  • Specific innate immunity: This is a natural resistance to a particular kind of germ only. 

The major functions of the innate immune system include:

  • Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection, through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators, called cytokines
  • Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead cells
  • Identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph, by specialized white blood cells
  • Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation
  • Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents

The adaptive immune system, is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that pathogen.

Components of the immune system
Innate immune system Adaptive immune system
Response is non-specific Pathogen and antigen specific response
Exposure leads to immediate maximal response Lag time between exposure and maximal response
Cell mediated & 

humoral components

Cell mediated and 

humoral components

No immunological memory Exposure leads to immunological memory
Found in nearly all forms of life Found only in jawed vertebrates

Source:  Wikipedia:  Immune System

Two very important components of the innate immune system are neutrophil and natural killer cells (NK cells).

Neutrophil are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells. During the beginning (acute) phase of inflammation, neutrophils are one of the first-responders of inflammatory cells to migrate towards the site of inflammation.

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte created in the bone marrow of the lymphatic system and provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor formation.  Natural killer (NK) cells, known to play a major role in the innate immune system, constantly patrol the body and destroy cancer cells and virus-infected cells.

Increasing neutrophil and NK cell activity is important to enhancing the innate immune system and defending the body by pathogens.  In fact, NK cells are the body’s first line of defense against the daily onslaught of pathogens.  Therefore optimizing NK cells provides greater protection and defense against foreign invaders.

T-cells and macrophages secrete Interleukin 6 (IL-6) to stimulate an immune response.  IL-6 acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.  IL-6 stimulates the inflammatory and auto-immune processes in many diseases.  An elevated and excessive secretion of IL-6 may increase the risk of many diseases, especially atherosclerosis.

Studies on the Effectiveness of Brolico® Enhancing the Innate Immune System

A 2011 study entitled Comparison Study to Determine Immunity Activation Effectiveness Produced by Functional Food Extracts with Proposed Immunity Stimulation Effects, revealed a comparison study of various well known natural immunity activating extracts using a new active assay (silkworm muscle contraction), which was originally developed by faculty at Tokyo University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 

Scientists discovered that when injecting a silkworm with a component that activates natural immunity, such as a bacteria or fungus, the muscles of the silkworm gradually shrink.  This is due to the fact that when the activated component binds with the immune cell of the silkworm, active oxygen is released, and a specific protein is activated, which causes the muscle to contract.   This muscle contraction can be measured by the degree of contraction in order to determine the precise level of specific activity (immunity activation) produced by the given component.

The researchers of this study used 10 extracts that are attributed to effect immunity stimulation for comparison against Brolico®.  These 10 extracts were:

  • açaí (berry fruit from Euterpe oleracea)
  • bee propolis
  • beta-glucan (from cell walls of cereals, yeast and bacteria)
  • broccoli sprouts
  • DHA (omega-3 fatty acid)
  • EPA (omega-3 fatty acid)
  • fucoidan (fund in brown algae)
  • lentinan (from Shiitake mushroom)
  • sulforaphane (from broccoli)

The results of the test were quite astonishing and showed that the phytonutrient extract of brolico (Brolico®) had the highest level of specific activity measuring approximately 770 units per milligram.  The other 10 extracts measured far below Brolico® with lentinan measuring the second highest with 290 units per milligram.

The Table below shows the measurements of each extract’s performance (units of specific activity per milligram), as well as the comparison evaluation results for each and Brolico®:

Comparison of Brolico® and 10 Extracts

ExtractsSpecific Activity (units/mg)Performance Comnparison
Lentinan (from Shiitake mushroom)290Approx 2.6x more
Broccoli sprouts (crude extracts)1840x more
Beta-glucan (from cell walls of cereals, yeast and bacteria)14Approx 50x more
Fucoidan (fund in brown algae)12Approx 60x more
DHA (omega-3 fatty acid)1070x more
Sulforaphane (from broccoli)7100x more
EPA (omega-3 fatty acid)4190x more
Açaí (berry fruit from Euterpe oleracea)3.1Approx 240x more
Bee propolis (ethanol extracts, crude extracts)0.401000x more

The researchers concluded that:

“the results suggest brolico to be capable of producing extraordinarily high levels of natural immunity stimulation, much higher those produced by its counterparts. Thus, there appears a significant benefit to further research on a much broader scale, specifically in regards to human trials.”   1



A research study published in 2012 in the Journal Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics (Vol.40 no.6 2012) entitled Exploratory Trial Concerning Activation of Human Natural Immunity by Continued Consumption of a Broccoli Extract Processed Food Product investigated the activating effect on human immune cells and safety of continuously consumed Brolico®.

Researchers at the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences have found that muscles of silkworm larvae contract by the action of the innate immune system.  Researchers at Imagine Global Care Co., Ltd. in collaboration with the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences sought out immunostimulatory substances using muscle contraction of silkworms as an indicator.  What they found was that Brolico® was found to have the potential for displaying an immunostimulatory effect that may exceed that of beta-glucan.

Test subjects were tested for three endpoints before and after consuming Brolico®.  These three endpoints included:

  • Neutrophil phagocytic capacity 
  • NK cell activity 
  • IL-6 levels

Changes in natural immunity-mediating cells NK cell activity and neutrophil phagocytic capacity tended to increase after consumption of the test food (p < 0.1 for both) (See Table 1). Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6 actually decrease after consumption.  No significant changes in the hemogram levels were noted between the values before and after consumption.


Source:  Exploratory Trial Concerning Activation of Human Natural Immunity by Continued Consumption of a Broccoli Extract Processed Food Product

The researchers concluded their study with the promising statement:

“The observed trend toward increased NK cell activity and neutrophil phagocytic capacity after consumption of the test food suggests that brolico contributes to activation of cells involved in natural immunity.”   2

This study from 2012 suggests that the extracted broccoli constituent enhances innate immunity.

Informational References:

Brolico Research


Brolico® can be purchased at

*The statements on this page have not been evaluated by the FDA. Products mentioned on this page are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The information on this page is for educational purposes only, and does not constitute medical advice. For medical advice please contact a licensed healthcare professional.

Nutrients that Prevent DNA Damage and Promote Their Repair In Order to Protect Against Disease

Deoxyribonucleic acid, commonly known as DNA, is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms.

DNA damage occurs when there is an alteration in the chemical structure of DNA through:

  • a break in a strand of DNA
  • a base missing from the backbone of DNA
  • a chemically changed base

The vast majority of DNA damage affects the primary structure of the double helix in which the bases are chemically modified. These modifications can in turn disrupt the molecules’ regular helical structure by introducing non-native chemical bonds or bulky adducts that do not fit in the standard double helix.

DNA damages that are naturally occurring due to metabolism and its byproducts occur at a high rate in the body.  Most of these damages to DNA from naturally occurring metabolism are repaired.  However, there may remain some DNA damage despite the action of repair processes. These remaining DNA damages accumulate in the tissues.

There are a number of sources that contribute to DNA damage.  DNA damage can be subdivided into two main types, either endogenous damage from naturally occurring metabolic processes and/or exogenous damage caused by external agents.

Endogenous damage caused by metabolic byproducts (naturally occurring):

  • Reactive oxygen species (free radicals)
  • Alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine
  • Hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination.
  • “Bulky adduct formation” (i.e., benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-dG adduct, aristolactam I-dA adduct)
  • Mismatch of bases, due to errors in DNA replication, in which the wrong DNA base is stitched into place in a newly forming DNA strand, or a DNA base is skipped over or mistakenly inserted.
  • Monoadduct damage cause by change in single nitrogenous base of DNA
  • Diadduct damage

Exogenous damage caused by external agents such as:

  • Radiation
    • Ultraviolet [UV 200-400 nm] radiation from the sun 1 
    • X-rays
    • Gamma rays
    • Microwave radiation  2
    • Mobile phone radiation  3  4
  • Air pollutants  5 
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  6  7
    • Tobacco smoke  8  9 
  • Heavy Metals
    • Arsenic  10
    • Cadmium chloride  11
  • Aflatoxin A1 (toxic chemicals produced by Aspergillus fungi growing on grains and peanuts)  12  13  14
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) (used in making all kinds of plastics and resins, including water bottles and food containers) 15  16
  • Pesticides and herbicides  17  18  19
  • Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) (from cooked meats at high temperatures)  20

Whether by endogenous metabolism or exposure to exogenous agents, the DNA repair process is constantly active.  The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, such as:

  • the cell type
  • the age of the cell
  • the extracellular environment

Enhancing and maintaining DNA repair processes is vital to the integrity of the cell and its functionality. 

In order to protect DNA from endogenous and exogenous damage, an important strategy is to consume nutrients that can not only prevent or mitigate the damage to DNA but also enhance and strengthen the DNA repair process. 

A number of nutrients have been identified and researched for their ability to prevent DNA damage and/or promote the repair of damaged DNA.

The Table below list those nutrients that prevent DNA damage and promote their repair:

Nutrients that Prevent DNA Damage and Promote Their Repair

Amino Acids
Fatty Acids
Fish oil (omega-3 fats)7
Genistein (from soy)11
Apigenin 12
Epigallo-Catechin-Gallate (EGCG) 13
Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) 15
Ellagic Acid 19
Ferulic Acid20
Lactobacillus rhamnosus22
Coenzyme Q1023
Choline 24
Folic Acid 25
Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6)26
Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide form of Vitamin B3) 27
Vitamin C28
Vitamin E (Tocotrienols)29
Vitamin D330
Cat’s Claw 31
Rhodiola rosea32
Korean Ginseng 33

Cover photo: Rhodiola rosea

Enhancing the Six Phase II Detoxification Pathways by Consuming the Necessary Nutrients

The detoxification system of the body consists of three phases that process toxins for excretion from the body.  The Phase I detoxification pathway is responsible for breaking fat-soluble toxins down and then sending the metabolites to the Phase II detoxification pathways, which builds new substances from the metabolites by adding molecules to them, which is called conjugation.

The purpose of the addition or conjugation of new substances to the Phase I toxic metabolites is to convert them into water-soluble forms and make them easier to transport, more stable and more functional for the body to excrete.  Once the toxic metabolites are conjugated by Phase II substances, Phase III molecules transport the stable toxins out of the body through the urine and/or bile.

There are 6 Phase II detoxification pathways in the body.  Each conjugation pathway serves a specific purpose of detoxifying certain toxins and requires specific nutrients to function.  These 6 detoxification pathways include:

  • Glutathione conjugation
  • Methylation
  • Sulfation
  • Acylation/Glycation
  • Acetylation
  • Glucuronidation

These 6 conjugation pathways are found primarily in the liver and in various other locations within the body:

Locations of Phase 2 Conjugation Pathways

Conjugation System Location in Body
Acylation/Glycation  conjugation liver, kidney
Glutathione conjugation liver, kidney
Glucuronidation liver, kidney, intestine, lung, skin, prostate, brain
Acetylation liver, lung, spleen, gastric mucosa, RBCs, lymphocytes
Sulfation liver, kidney, intestine
Methylation liver, kidney, lung, CNS

Source:  Liston HL, Markowitz JS, DeVane CL (October 2001). “Drug glucuronidation in clinical psychopharmacology”. J Clin Psychopharmacol 21 (5): 500–15. doi:10.1097/00004714-200110000-00008. PMID 11593076

In order for each conjugation pathways to function properly, they require specific nutrients.  These nutrients are listed in the Table below:

Phase II Conjugation Pathways

Conjugation PathwayFunctionDetoxifiesNutrients to Enhance
Conjugation PathwayFunctionDetoxifiesNutrients to Enhance
Glutathione conjugationGlutathione is an intracellular antioxidant. It is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. Glutathione conjugation is used to eliminate toxins through the lungs, intestines and kidneys, as well as the liver. Exposure to high levels of toxins and heavy metals deplete glutathione faster than it can be replenishedFat soluble toxins: solvents, herbicides, fungicides, hydrocarbons and lipid peroxides. Heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, lead). Nicotine and toxins from tobacco smoke. AlcoholCruciferous vegetables, Vitamin C, Alpha lipoic acid, whey protein, N-Acetyl-Cysteine, Glutamine and methionine, milk thistle
MethylationMethylation conjugates toxins to methyl groups, particularly the amino acid methionineHormones: estrogen, melatonin. Neurotransmitters: Epinephrine and norepinephrine, dopamine, histamine, serotonin. It converts pyridine, sulphites and hypochlorites into compounds excreted through the lungsAmino acid: methionine, B-Vitamins: B12, B6 and Folic acid, Choline, Betaine (TMG), Magnesium, Zinc, SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine)
SulfationConjugates toxins to sulfur compounds. Sulfation requires sulphate and is limited by the amount present in the body. Sulphate may be ingested from food, but is also produced by the action of the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase on the amino acid cysteine. Sulfoxidation, a final stage of methylation, transforms toxic sulfites into sulfateacetaminophen, Food additives: aspartame, Hormones and neurotransmitters: cortisol, thyroid, steroidal, Toxins from intestinal bacteria, Various environmental toxins, XenoestrogensMethionine and cysteine, sulfur rich vegetables, B Vitamins: B1, B2 and B12, Magnesium, Zinc, MSM, N-Acetyl-Cysteine, Indole-3-Carbinol
Amino Acid Conjugation: Acylation/GlycinationAttaching toxins to amino acids glycine, glutamine and tuarine. Attaching toxins to glycine is also known as glycinationBenzoate, Salycilates (aspirin), Toluene (industrial solvent)Protein-rich foods, Amino acids: glycine, taurine, glutamine, arginine, and ornithine
AcetylationAttaches acetyl co-A to toxins. Poor acetylation prolongs the life span of drugs and other toxic chemicals in the body, thus enhancing their toxicityNeurotransmitters: histamine, serotonin, Salicylic acid, PABA, Sulfa drugs, environmental toxins, tobacco smoke, exhaust fumesPantothenic acid (B5), Vitamin C, Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Guidelines on the Identification of Exposure and Detoxification of Environmental Toxins

Toxic body burden is the lifelong accumulation of chemicals to which we are exposed through our food, air, and environment.  The Environmental Working Group (EWG) have identified over 200 toxic compounds that may be present in the blood of humans. 

A comprehensive and cost-effective tool, Toxic Effects CORE by Genova Diagnostics, narrows down the areas of toxic burden that could be related to chronic, intractable symptoms of exposure to certain environmental toxins.  This test is valuable to determine the total toxic body burden of the main categories of environmental toxins, which include:

  • Alkylphenols
  • Chrlorinated Pesticides
  • Organophosphates
  • Phthalates and Parabens
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Volatile Solvents

Once the Toxic Effects CORE test results are determined, you can begin to develop a detoxification strategy with the assistance of your health care professional. 

This article provides some guidelines to identify the exposure sources of the six environmental toxin categories in your life and the proactive nutrition and supplement strategies for their detoxification and clearance.

Guidelines on the Identification of Exposure and Detoxification of Environmental Toxins


Identify exposure sources and remove them to reduce harm from Alkylphenols: 

  • Avoid polycarbonate containers that contain Bisphenol A (BPA), which usually have a #7 or a #3 on the bottom
  • When possible, opt for glass, porcelain, or stainless steel containers, particularly for hot food or liquids
  • Avoid handling store receipts, which have been found to be a source of BPA
  • Use baby bottles that are BPA free
  • Don’t microwave polycarbonate plastic food containers as it will increase release and exposure. Polycarbonate is strong and durable, but over time it may break down from overuse at high temperatures
  • Look for BPA-free cans and containers and reduce your use of canned foods overall
  • To minimize 4-nonylphenol exposure, do not heat food in plastic cling-type materials

Enhance the detoxification and clearance of Alkylphenols:

  • Sauna therapy is effective in clearing alkylphenols
  • BPA is cleared with glucuronidation by the liver.  Consume foods and supplements that support glucuronidation :
    • N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC)
    • Calcium D-Glucurate
    • Alpha Lipoic Acid
    • Milk Thistle

Chrlorinated Pesticides

Avoid foods that contain high levels of Chlorinated pesticides:

  • Non-organic butter which is high in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
  • Farmed Atlantic salmon and certain lake-caught fish which is high in DDE, dieldrin, HCB, and Mirex
  • Non-organic greens (spinach, collards) which are high in DDE
  • Non-organic cheeses (cream cheese, cheddar, American) which are high in DDE, dieldrin, and HCB
  • Non-organic fatty meats (lamb, ground beef) which are high in DDE and HCB

Enhance the detoxification and clearance of Chlorinated pesticides:

  • Chlorophyll and chlorophyll-containing foods are effective at increasing the excretion of chlorinated pesticides  1 
  • Sauna therapy and colonic irrigations have been used to reduce the presence of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides
  • Daily use of rice bran fiber (RBF) has been used to increase the clearance of PCBs  2
  • White and green teas have been shown to increase the excretion of fat soluble toxins  3 


Identify exposure sources and remove them to reduce harm from Organophosphates:

  • Individuals in occupations that administer organophosphates should wear protective clothing, removing and washing clothes upon entering home and cleansing skin with warm water and soap
  • Do not use organophosphate products on residential gardens or lawns

Enhance the detoxification and clearance of Organophosphates:

  • Prevent organophosphate damage, especially in the brain, by consuming foods or supplements rich in Docosahexanoic acid (DHA)  4
  • Consume antioxidants to protect from organophosphate induced oxidative stress:  5
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin C
    • Alpha Lipoic Acid
  • Consume amino acids to assist in the stimulation of detoxification of organophosphates:  6
    • Taurine
    • Glycine
    • N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC)

Phthalates and Parabens

Identify exposure sources and remove them to reduce harm from Phthalates and Parabens:

  • Avoid ingested, topical, and airborne phthalate and paraben sources to reduce elevated levels. Exposure to plastics, paints, and cosmetics that are not labeled as “phthalate-free and paraben-free” should be reduced in the home, at work, and in personal grooming
  • Diethyl phthalate makes plastics more flexible and appears in many common household products including food packaging, tools, toothbrushes, toys, aftershave lotions, aspirin, bath products, cosmetics, detergents, eye shadows, hairsprays, insecticides, mosquito repellants, nail extenders, nail polish, nail polish removers, skin care products, hairstyling products, and auto parts

Enhance the detoxification and clearance of Phthalates and Parabens:

  • Saunas can enhance removal of phthalates in sweat.  7 
  • Supplementation with niacin can assist removal of phthalates, especially when combined with sauna therapy
  • Supplement with the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

Identify exposure sources and remove them to reduce harm from Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs):

  • Avoid eating Atlantic (farmed) salmon; substitute with wild caught Alaskan salmon
  • Avoid commercial varieties of butter and margarine; substitute with organic butter or organic raw butter

Enhance the detoxification and clearance of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs):

  • Chlorophyll and chlorophyll-containing foods are effective at increasing the excretion of chlorinated pesticides  8 
  • Sauna therapy and colonic irrigations have been used to reduce the presence of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides
  • Consume foods and supplements containing:
    • Glucuronic acid
    • Calcium D-glucarate
    • Glycine
    • Glutathione
    • Taurine
    • Glycine
    • Glutamine
    • N-Acetyl L-cysteine (NAC)
  • use of rice bran fiber (RBF) has been used to increase the clearance of PCBs  9

Volatile Solvents

Identify exposure sources and remove them to reduce harm from Volatile Solvents:

  • Discontinue the use of household cleaning products or personal hygiene preparations containing volatile solvents
  • Avoid the use of indoor air fresheners
  • Avoid breathing household cleaning products and begin transitioning to non-toxic cleaners
  • Avoid heating or eating foods in Styrofoam containers (especially hot drinks)

Enhance the detoxification and clearance of Volatile Solvents:

  • Stimulate detoxification pathways by consuming
    • Alpha Lipoic Acid

Promising New Study Shows ArterosilHPĀ® Increases Arterial Elasticity by 89.6%

This article is an update to the previously published article entitled:  Maintaining the Integrity of and Repairing the Glycocalyx: The Endothelial Gatekeeper.

Restoring the endothelial glycocalyx is an important strategy in supporting arterial health and preventing cardiovascular disease.  A very important supplement that helps to restore the endothelial glycocalyx is Arterosil®.

A new single blinded clinical study, which was conducted at an independent cardiology center on the Baylor Medical Campus in Plano, Texas, assessed Arterosil’s effects on arterial elasticity and vascular function, using pulse wave analysis. 

A pulse wave is when the heart pumps and pushes out blood. When the heart pumps it generates a pulse wave which is a contour wave that travels along the arterial tree. The wave form is generated from the left ventricular chamber of the heart to the big aorta, and is reflected back when the big aorta bifurcates or divides into two arteries.

In this important study, ArterosilHP was used which is the high potency version of Arterosil. The study showed that ArterosilHP improves four aspects of vascular function:

  • Arterial Elasticity: 89.6% average improvement (78.9% of subjects experienced an increase)
  • Wave Type: 48.4% average improvement (84.2% of subjects experienced an increase)
  • Total Power: 37.8% average improvement (84.2% of subjects experienced an increase)
  • Stress Resistance: 133.3% average improvement (89.5% of subjects experienced an increase)

Source:  Arterosil®

Nineteen healthy human subjects (11 females age 22 to 64 and 8 males age 30 to 60) were randomly recruited for the study.  The baseline reading was taken at approximately 2 hours (+/- 30 minutes) post consumption of a breakfast of their choice. Immediately after the baseline reading one capsule of ArterosilHP was swallowed. A post-dose Max Pulse reading was taken every 30 minutes for 3 hours, for a total of 7 Max Pulse readings (baseline, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min & 180 min +/- 5 minutes). No food or liquid (other than small amounts of water as needed) was consumed during the 3 hour testing period.

During each of the 7 tests for each subject the follow data were collected:

  • Percentage of Type 1 Wave Forms
  • Arterial Elasticity
  • Stress Resistance
  • Frequency Domain Power

The current clinical study demonstrates that ArterosilHP supports arterial health by rapidly improving the body’s percentage of type 1 wave forms, arterial elasticity, stress resistance and frequency domain power.

 Arterosil® comes in two (2) product versions:
  • Arterosil® has been shown to support a healthy endothelial glycocalyx, the inner lining of every blood vessel in the human body.
  • ArterosilHP® is the high potency version of Arterosil with twice the active ingredients per capsule.  

Arterosil Helps to Strengthen The Glycocalyx


To purchase Arterosil®, click on the link(s) below:



Testing Toxic Body Burden to Create a Targeted Detoxification Strategy

The lifelong accumulation of toxic chemicals that we are exposed to through food, air, and the environment is defined as the toxic body burden.  This continuous exposure can lead to chronic health conditions and serious diseases. 

Because we are constantly being exposed to these toxic chemicals, even with proactive mitigating behaviors, it is necessary to continuously engage in detoxification practices by making sure the detoxification systems of the body are working unimpeded.  Detoxification should not be a “once in awhile practice”, but instead should be performed daily and part of a continuous and practical lifestyle.  The body subconsciously and naturally detoxifies continuously through Phase I and II detoxification systems which never stops.    

Before starting a detoxification program or protocol, it may be useful to first determine the toxic burden on your body and physiology.  This can be accomplished through medical tests conducted by professional medical laboratories that are ordered by your health care professional.

These toxic body burden tests provide a complete and comprehensive analysis and determination of the toxic burden on your body.  The results of these tests can provide you with vital information to create a targeted and strategic detoxification program or protocol. 

These test are commonly fall into three categories:

  • Detoxification Pathways (Phase I and II) and Genomics
  • Environmental Toxic Chemicals
  • Toxic Metals

Detoxification Pathways (Phase I and II) and Genomics

This category tests and evaluates single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk of impaired detoxification capacity especially when exposed to environmental toxins. It also evaluates the two detoxification pathways:

Phase I: Cytochrome P-450

Phase II: Conjugation of Toxins and Elimination

  • Methylation (catechol-O-methyltransferase)
  • Acetylation (N-acetyl transferase)
  • Glutathione Conjugation (glutathione s-transferase)
  • Oxidative Protection (superoxide dismutase)

Environmental Toxic Chemicals

This category tests the various environmental toxins that burden the body.  The environmental toxins that are usually tested include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • 1,3 Butadiene
    • 1-Bromopropane (1-BP)
    • 2, 4-Dicholorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D)
    • Acrylamide
    • Acrylonitrile
    • Benzene
    • Bisphenol A (BPA)
    • Chlorinated Pesticides
    • Diphenyl Phosphate
    • Ethylene Oxide
    • MTBE and ETBE
    • Organophosphates
    • Parabens
    • Perchlorate
    • Phthalates
    • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
    • Propylene Oxide
    • Pyrethrins
    • Styrene
    • Vinyl Chloride
    • Volatile Solvents
    • Xylenes

Toxic Metals

We are constantly being exposed to toxic metals which can have damaging effects on the body.  These test determine the levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and other toxic metals in the body.

Two companies that provide toxic body burden tests are Genova Diagnostics and The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.  The tests that they provide are as follows:

Genova Diagnostics

Genomic Testing

DetoxiGenomic® Profile

This test evaluates SNPs associated with increased risk of impaired detoxification capacity especially when exposed to environmental toxins. It also identifies individuals potentially susceptible to adverse drug reactions.

Environmental Toxic Chemicals Testing

Bisphenol A (BPA) Profile – Urine

The Bisphenol A Profile can help identify exposure to the common endocrine disruptors BPA, triclosan, and 4-nonylphenol.

Chlorinated Pesticides Profile – Serum 

The Chlorinated Pesticides Profile can help identify when a patient has been exposed to certain pesticides and insecticides, and how high a body burden of chlorinated pesticides the patient is carrying. This panel looks at the most commonly found chlorinated pesticides, which have national reference ranges, that have been documented to cause adverse health problems. Levels are given both in parts per million (PPM) and as lipid-adjusted amounts so the clinician can best estimate the total body burden of these compounds.

Organophosphates Profile – Urine 

The Organophosphates Profile is a urine test that identifies a patient’s prolonged exposed to organophosphate pesticides. The Organophosphates Profile uncovers exposure to these pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides to determine if avoidance and detoxification are needed for optimal health.

Organophosphate pesticides/insecticides are nerve agents that inactivate an important enzyme which is essential to nerve function. This can cause neurodevelopment disorders in small children and fetuses. Though organophosphates degrade rapidly when exposed to sunlight, air, and soil, chronic toxicity can still occur as these chemicals are used on food crops, orchards, and food storage centers.

Phthalates & Parabens Profile – Urine 

The Phthalates & Parabens Profile can help identify everyday exposures to toxins from the use of items such as personal care products and plastic food containers. Environmental toxins should be evaluated as a “first step” to help patients get back on the road to wellness.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Profile 

The Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Profile can help identify which of the most toxic PCBs a patient has been exposed to and the body burden of the patient. We look at the most commonly found PCBs, which have national reference ranges, that have been documented to cause adverse health problems. Levels are given both in parts per million (PPM) and as lipid-adjusted amounts so the clinician can best estimate the total body burden of these compounds.

Once PCBs enter the body, they are absorbed by our fat cells and stored. Since PCBs are not water-soluble, they are not excreted from the body and accumulate over a person’s lifetime, increasing that person’s body burden of PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl testing can help you determine the extent of this PCB burden.

Volatile Solvents Profile – Whole Blood 

The Volatile Solvents Profile can help identify a patient’s prolonged exposure to the most commonly found volatile solvents that have been shown to cause serious health problems.

Overexposure or chronic exposure to volatile solvents damages the central nervous system and causes chemical-driven liver and kidney damage. Benzene, in particular, has a severe toxic effect on the hematological system and is a recognized human carcinogen. Other solvents contribute to atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, vision problems, and depression of the central nervous system.

Toxic Effects CORE 

Toxic body burden is the lifelong accumulation of chemicals to which we are exposed through our food, air, and environment. This accumulation is not without consequences, and chronic health conditions like autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer and even diabetes, have been associated with ongoing exposure to environmental toxins.

Research suggests that this exposure begins very early in life. Once thought to be protected by the placental barrier, even infants have shown signs of in-utero toxic exposure. In fact, a 2005 Environmental Working Group (EWG) investigation found over 200 toxic compounds (in aggregate) in the cord blood of 10 newborns.

Toxic Metals Testing


Toxic Element Clearance Profile

The Toxic Element Clearance Profile is a toxic exposure test which measures urinary excretion of a diverse range of potentially harmful elements. Both well-known toxics such as lead and mercury, and new technology toxins such as niobium are assessed in this toxic element test.

The Toxic Element Clearance Profile offers an advanced, comprehensive assessment of toxic and potentially toxic elements excreted in the urine. In addition to measuring classic elemental toxins, this profile includes elements used in medical, aerospace, nuclear, and high-tech electronic industries. Use of these potential toxins is increasing because of their growing commercial, industrial, and medical applications.

Toxic Metals – Whole Blood 

Increased exposure to toxic elements is generally reflected by levels in whole blood. This test shows levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. The Genova Diagnostics Toxic Metals Profile shows levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.

GPL-TOX: Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile

The Great Plains Laboratory has created GPL-TOX, a toxic non-metal chemical profile that screens for the presence of 172 different toxic chemicals including organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, benzene, xylene, vinyl chloride, pyrethroid insecticides, acrylamide, perchlorate, diphenyl phosphate, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, and more.

Glyphosate Test

This tests for glyphosate in the body through a urine test.

Metals Urine Test

Heavy metals toxicity caused by increasing levels of pollution and use of chemicals in industry is a growing threat to our health and development of our children. High levels of toxic metals deposited in body tissues and subsequently in the brain, may cause significant developmental and neurological damage.

Metals Whole Blood Test

Whole blood element analysis is a diagnostic method that assists in determining deficiencies, excesses and imbalances of essential elements as well as recent or ongoing exposure to specific toxic elements. Whole blood analysis measures total element levels that circulate extracellularly (serum/plasma) as well as intracellularly (function within blood cells). Therefore, additional testing of blood fractions or other tissues may be necessary for differential diagnosis of specific imbalances, or to assess specific dysfunctions of assimilation, transport, retention or excretion of elements.

Metals Fecal Test

Analysis of elements in feces provides indirect information about the potential for toxic metal burden. For many toxic metals, fecal (biliary) excretion is the primary natural route of elimination from the body. Fecal elemental analysis also provides a direct indication of dietary exposure to toxic metals. Specimen collection is convenient for the patient and only requires a single-step procedure.

Informational References:

Following are the links to the pages for each test from Genova Diagnostics and The Great Plains Laboratory Inc.:

Genova Diagnostics

Genomic Testing

Environmental Toxic Chemicals Testing

Toxic Metals Testing

The Great Plains Laboratory Inc.

Environmental Toxic Chemicals Testing

Toxic Metals Testing

Genova Diagnostics Videos

Detoxigenomics Profile - Report Review

The Exposome: Assessing and Measuring the Body Burden of Environmental Toxins 09-2013

Addressing the Impact of Environmental Toxins in Womens Health

Toxic Effects: Everyday Exposures

Our Toxic World and Human Disease 03-2013

Nutritional Support for Environmental Toxin Exposure

The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc. Videos

New Important Chemicals Being Tested by GPL-TOX” by Dr. Matthew Pratt-Hyatt

Toxic Chemicals and the Increasing Rates of Chronic Illnesses” by Dr. William Shaw Ph.D.

Heavy Metal Testing and Therapy - Various Options for Detoxification Intervention” by Dr. Woeller

Heavy Metals and Integrative Medicine - Various Treatment Approaches and Practical Testing Options” by Dr. Woeller

Treatment Protocols for Metal Toxicity” by Dr. Kurt Woeller

Toxic Chemicals and the Increasing Rates of Chronic Illnesses” by Dr. William Shaw Ph.D.

Increasing PON1 Activity to Detoxify Organophosphates (Pesticides/Herbicides)

Many pesticide, herbicides and nerve agents have as their basis the chemical organophosphate.  In addition to pesticides and herbicides, organophosphates are used in solvents and plasticizers.  Commonly used organophosphates have included parathion, malathion, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, phosmet, fenitrothion, tetrachlorvinphos, azamethiphos, and azinphos-methyl.

Organophophates are not used for residential purposes, but commercially they are sprayed on fruits and vegetables.  They can be absorbed through the lungs or skin or by eating them on food. 

According to the U.S. EPA, organophosphates are very toxic to bees, wildlife and humans.  Organophosphates is considered a neurotoxin and has effects on developing organisms, even from low levels of exposure.  Primarily, organophosphates irreversibly inactivate acetylcholinesterase.

Acetylcholinesterase breaks (hydrolyzes) acetylcholine down into its constituents – choline (which is subsequently utilized in the production of fresh acetylcholine) and acetic acid.  Acetylcholinesterase effectively terminates synaptic transmission.  It is necessary in the process of the neurotransmission of acetylcholine. 

Source:  Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences
University of Washington

Acetylcholinesterase is released from the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft and binds to acetylcholine receptors on the post-synaptic membrane, relaying the signal from the nerve. Acetylcholinesterase, also located on the post-synaptic membrane, terminates the signal transmission by hydrolyzing acetylcholine.

Detoxifying Organophophates from the Body

A special molecule called Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 (PON1) is the enzyme in the body that is responsible for hydrolysing (break down (a compound) by chemical reaction with water) organophosphate pesticides and nerve gasses.

PON1 is one of three known genotypic forms of paraoxonases. Paraoxonases are a group of enzymes consisting of three sub-types that were originally discovered for their involvement in the hydrolysis of organophosphates.  Serum PON1 is secreted mainly by the liver although local synthesis occurs in several tissues and the PON1 protein is found in almost all tissues, but primarily in the liver yet has also been expressed in tissue from the kidney and parts of the colon.

PON1 is also critical for its role as an antioxidant in preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). 

Low levels of PON1 activity in the body can be detrimental to health, especially when there is exposure to organophosphates, which is almost inevitable in our modern day society.

To continuously detoxify organophosphates from the body, you need to make sure that you keep your PON1 activity levels high.

Increasing and Elevating Levels of PON1

There a number of natural substances that increase and elevate PON1 activity in the body.  Generally, PON1 is increased following consumption of polyphenol-rich diets.  1 

Specific polyphenol compounds have been studied for their effectiveness in increasing PON1 activity.  These compounds include:

  • Naringenin   2  
  • Oleic acid (olive oil and sunflower oil)  3 
  • Pomegranate extracts  4  5  6  7
  • Quercetin  8
  • Resveratrol  9
  • Apple Polyphenols (increased PON1 by 23%) 10

How to Detoxify Your Body from Glyphosate Exposure

What is Glyphosate?

Glyphosate, also known chemically as N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine is a broad-spectrum systemic pesticide/herbicide and crop desiccant. It belongs to the organophosphorus family of compounds. 

It was developed and discovered by Monsanto in 1970 1 and brought to market in 1974 under the trade-name Roundup.  It is used to kill weeds that compete with crops.  The crops that it is sprayed on include sugar, corn, soy and wheat, among others.

Figure 1.  RoundUp(R)

More than 130 countries permit the extensive use of glyphosate which makes it the most widely used herbicide in the world today.  Twenty percent of the worlds Roundup is used in the United States.  Latest statistics from the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that 280 million pounds were used in 2012 which is equivalent to about one pound per American.

pesticide use map

Estimated Annual Agricultural Glyphosate Use in the United States for 2014 (Preliminary) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)

Glyphosate as a Cause of Many Chronic Health Problems

There are a number of studies demonstrating that glyphosate exposure to humans (and all mammals) can cause serious chronic health problems.  Exposure to glyphosate can include:

  • absorption through the skin
  • eating foods treated with glyphosate
  • drinking water contaminated with glyphosate

Glyphosate exposure usually manifests slowly over time and results in obvious dysfunctions in biological systems.

Exposure to glyphosate has been shown to have the following effects on human physiology:  2  3

  • acts as an antibiotic (glyphosate was in fact patented as an antibiotic)
  • chelates important minerals (iron, cobalt, manganese; glyphosate was in fact patented as a mineral chelator)
  • decimates the microflora and its ability to produce essential amino acids like tryptophan that converts to serotonin
  • disrupts the microbiome in the intestine, by disrupting the shikimate pathway, causing a decrease in the ratio of beneficial to harmful bacteria
  • inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes
  • disrupts sulfate synthesis and sulfate transport
  • impairs methylation pathways
  • interferes with synthesis of aromatic amino acids and methionine, which leads to shortages in neurotransmitters and folate
  • inhibition of pituitary release of thyroid stimulating hormone
  • toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines  4

Glyphosate exposure has also been associated with the development of various cancers.  The World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer published a summary in March 2015 that classified glyphosate as a probable carcinogen in humans.  5  The possible cancers linked to glyphosate exposure include:

  • non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • pancreatic islet-cell adenoma
  • renal tubule carcinoma
  • skin tumors

Determining Glyphosate Levels in Your Body by Glyphosate Testing

If you think you have been exposed to glyphosate it is probably a good idea to test the levels of glyphosate in your body.  Levels of glyphosate in humans is done through a urine test.  6  There are a number of laboratories that are currently testing for glyphosate.  These labs include:

Great Plains Laboratory

Great Plains Labs has developed tests that help determine a patient’s exposure to glyphosate.

Glyphosate Test

Glyphosate is now commonly combined with the weed killer 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), testing for this chemical with the GPL-TOX test may wish to be considered also.

GPL-TOX: Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile   

Health Research Institute

Health Research Institute’s test for glyphosate is the most sensitive and most affordable screen for glyphosate available in North America. It also screens for AMPA, a metabolite of glyphosate, at no extra cost. This is important because it is necessary to take both glyphosate and AMPA into account to more fully assess exposure to glyphosate.

Glyphosate Environmental Exposure Test

Detoxifying Your Body from Glyphosate Exposure

There are a number of different studies that claim that glyphosate accumulates in the bones, intestine, spleen, liver, muscle and kidney.

If a urine test is positive for glyphosate exposure, then the first stage of detoxification is to follow these guidelines:

  • avoid using Roundup and other similar products
  • avoid consumption of GMO foods which are directly contaminated with glyphosate
  • avoid animal products such as milk or meat for which GMO foods were used to feed the animals
  • eat organic foods as much as possible
  • avoid living in areas where glyphosate is applied

Specific proactive behaviors can also be implemented, as follows:

  • use infrared sauna for sweating out toxins
  • consume probiotic foods and probiotic supplements to repopulate the microbiota which glyphosate destroys
  • eat organic foods rich in sulfur and manganese

Researchers have investigated specifically how to the detoxify glyphosate from the human body.  Although there are not many of these studies to date, more interest is being dedicated to finding natural substances that may detoxify glyphosate. 

A combination of natural substances have been studied for reducing the activity of glyphosate in the gastrointestinal tract.  These natural substances act as binders or neutralizers that could be a solution to remove the glyphosate contamination. 

A study published in the December 2014 issue of the Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology found that the oral application of certain natural substances were able effectively reduce urinary levels of glyphosate.  7  The researchers used a combination of the following substances:

  • fulvic acids
  • humic acids
  • activated charcoal
  • bentonite clay
  • sauerkraut juice

The study used Schleswig Holstein cows suffering from symptoms of chronic botulism.  They were fed sequentially with 400 g/animal charcoal daily for 4 weeks (weeks 1-4 of the study), 200 g/ animal charcoal (weeks 5-10 of the study), 200 g charcoal and 500 ml Sauerkraut juice/animal (weeks 11-14 of the study), 120 g/animal humic acids (weeks 15-18 of the study) 200 g charcoal and 100 mL Aquahumin/animal (weeks 19- 20 the of study), or 100 g charcoal and 50 mL Aquahumin (weeks 21-22 of the study) followed by 4 weeks without any supplementation.

There was a significant reduction of glyphosate in urine following supplementation with a combination of 200g charcoal plus either 500 mL sauerkraut juice or humic acid.

They concluded that a charcoal-sauerkraut juice combination and humic acids reduced glyphosate excretion by urine and led to the improved health of animals.  8

Another study from January 2011 published in the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology tested the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. The authors used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and Uro1 in order to understand whether specific molecular actions took place or not.

The analysis of underlying mechanisms revealed that plant extracts were not capable of preventing radiolabelled glyphosate from entering cells; however Dig2 did restore the CYP1A2 activity disrupted by Roundup, and had only a mild preventive effect on the CYP3A4, and no effect on the glutathione S-transferase.  9

Dig2 is a plant extract formula that is manufactured by Sevene Pharma Company.  Dig2 consists of the following plant extracts:

  • Taraxacum officinalis (Dandelion)
  • Rhamnus frangula (Alder buckthorn)
  • Raphanus sativus (Radish)
  • Carduus marianus (Silybum marianum; milk thistle)

An interesting study from October 2010 published in the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Technology investigated the mechanism of action of liver cells exposed to glyphosate and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1.  10

Glyphosate, in the form of the Monsanto product Roundup, is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic (liver) cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of specific medicinal plant extracts can protect to some extent human cell lines against this toxin.  The researchers tested the ability of a new natural substance formula called Dig1 to protect cells from glyphosate intoxication.

Dig1 contains the following plant extracts:

  • Taraxacum officinalis (Dandelion)
  • Arctium lappa (Burdock root)
  • Berberis vulgaris (Barberry; the active ingredient in barberry is berberine)
  • Chelidonium majus (Greater celandine)

Dig1 is a mixture of diluted plant extracts obtained by Sevene Pharma (Monoblet, France) and were chosen by the researchers for their digestive detoxification or hepato-protective effects.  Sevene Pharma markets Dig1 under the brand name Digeodren.

Dig1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 hours. In addition, the researchers evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup.  11

Dig1 was also used in a study published in July 2016 the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.  In this study, written by most of the same authors of the October 2010 study, they tested the in vivo effects of Dig1 prior to and during 8 days of glyphosate intoxication in a total of 4 groups of 40 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats each. After treatments, horizontal and vertical locomotor activities of the animals were measured.   12

Dig1 did not have any physiological or biochemical observable impact alone at 2%. Out of a total of 29 measured parameters, 8 were significantly affected by R absorption within only 8 days. On these 8 parameters, only 2 were not restored by D (GGT activity and plasmatic phosphate), 5 were totally restored (horizontal and vertical locomotor activities, CYP2D6 activity, plasmatic Na + and estradiol), and the 6th was almost restored (plasmatic K+).

Dig1, without any side effects observable in these conditions, presented strong preventive and therapeutic properties in vivo after a short-term intoxication by the widely used pesticide Roundup.

Based on the scientific studies to-date, there are a number of natural substances that have shown positive results in detoxifying and reducing the toxic effects of glyphosate exposure.


  • Raphanus sativus (Radish)

Probiotic foods and supplements

  • Sauerkraut and sauerkraut juice


  • Sulfur (Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM))
  • Manganese
  • Fulvic acid
  • Humic acid

Charcoal and Clay

  • Activated charcoal
  • Bentonite clay


  • Taraxacum officinalis (Dandelion)
  • Rhamnus frangula (Alder buckthorn)
  • Raphanus sativus (Radish)
  • Carduus marianus (Silybum marianum; milk thistle)
  • Arctium lappa (Burdock root)
  • Berberis vulgaris (Barberry; the active ingredient in barberry is berberine)
  • Chelidonium majus (Greater celandine)

The Mineral Power for Your Body’s Electrical Supply | Stephanie Seneff | TEDxNewYorkSalon

The Health Dangers of Roundup (glyphosate) Herbicide. Jeffrey Smith & Stephanie Seneff

Stephanie Seneff, PhD on Glyphosate (RoundUp) Poisoning

Understanding Glyphosate: Presence in Foods and Potential for Influence on Human Health

Prevention and Early Intervention of Cancer by Reducing Serum Levels of the ENOX2 (tNOX) Protein With Green Tea and Capsicum annuum

ENOX is a gene that encodes the protein Ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol exchanger, a member of the NOX family of NADPH oxidases.   Research has discovered three known classes of ENOX proteins:

  • ENOX1 is found normally in most cells
  • ENOX2 is found in cancers
  • ENOX3, also known as arNOX, is an age-related class of proteins

These three ENOX proteins are involved in:

  • aging
  • biological time keeping
  • cancer
  • cell growth
  • viral infections

ENOX2 Protein As Indicator of Cancerous Cells

Ecto-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Oxidase Disulfide-Thiol Exchanger 2 (ENOX2), also known as Tumor-Associated Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Oxidase (tNOX), is specific for cancer by coating the surfaces of malignant cells and disrupting apoptosis signals to execute programmed cell death of the malignant cell.  ENOX2 allows immature cancer cells to enlarge to a normal size.  Essentially, cancers cells cannot survive or grow without ENOX2.

ENOX2 is produced only by cancer cells and not healthy normal cells. 

A distinct function of ENOX2 is the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ in an oscillating fashion.  This process is accomplished within a period of 24 minutes, completing 60 cycles in a 24 hour period.  This 60 cycles of 24 minutes is considered a regular oscillation of the biological clock.  The period of oscillation in a cancerous cell is reduced to 22 minutes.  1

Detection of ENOX2 in the Serum with the ONCOblot® Test

The presence of ENOX2 in the blood serum is a marker for the presence of cancer and represents a non-invasive approach to cancer detection.  ENOX2 has become a target for early diagnosis of cancer as well as for early preventive intervention. 

The researchers D. James Morré, PhD and Dorothy Morré, PhD created the ONCOblot® Test which identifies ENOX2 in the blood.   Since ENOX2 proteins are shed into the circulation, they can be detected in the blood through this test.

The ONCOblot® Test has been shown to detect ENOX2 as early as Stage 0. The limit of detection is an estimated 2 million cells (2 mm or less tumor mass, roughly the size of a pinhead).   The ONCOblot® Test can reputedly differentiate among 26 different types of cancer.

Inhibiting ENOX2 With Natural Substances

A research paper published in 2014 in Clinical Proteomics studied the effects of a natural substance formula on patients testing positive using the ONCOblot® Test.  2

The study used 110 patients that tested positive for cancer presence using the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin 2-D gel/western blot protocol for detection of serum presence of transcript variants of the ENOX2 protein.

Those patients that tested positive for ENOX2 were given a 350 mg capsule of Capsol-T® every 4 hours including during the night for periods of at least 3 to 6 months or longer.  Patients consumed a total of 6 capsules per 24 hour period for a total of 2,100 mg.

Capsol-T® is a mixture of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) plus Capsicum (Capsicum annuum) powder in the form of 350 mg gel capsules.  The capsules contained the two ingredients in a ratio of 25:1 (green tea:capsicum). The caffeine content of the 350 mg Capsol-T® product was 0.472% (1.65 mg caffeine). 

The breakdown using this 25:1 ratio is as follows:

Per Capsule

336 mg green tea          96%

14 mg capsicum              4%

350 mg total capsule     100%

Total of 6 Capsules

2,016 mg  green tea       96%

84 mg capsicum               4%

2,100 mg total              100%

The synergistic combination of decaffeinated green tea and capsicum resulted in a 100 fold increase in killing of cultured cancer cell lines compared to green tea alone.  3  Cancer cells with blocked ENOX2 activity are not able to enlarge and are thus directed towards apoptosis (programmed cell death).

After completion of 3 to 17 months of Capsol-T® use, 94% of subjects subsequently tested negative for ENOX2 presence.   Oral Capsol-T® is consistently effective in reducing the serum ENOX2 levels to below detectable limits.  4

ONCOblot: Hear from the developer and scientist

ONCOblot test - all hype or a new paradigm?

ONCOblot Explained

Propionibacterium freudenreichii: A Probiotic With Remarkable and Promising Properties

Introduction to Propionibacteria and Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Propionibacterium freudenreichii belongs to the dairy group of the genus Propionibacterium.  Propionibacteria were first described at the end of the 19th century by E. von Freudenreich and S. Orla-Jensen, who were studying propionic acid fermentation in Emmental cheese (Swiss cheese), leading to propose the genus Propionibacterium.  1  Propionibacteria belongs to the phylum of firmicutes. They are characterised as gram-positive, non-sporing, non-motile pleomorphic rods. They are anaerobic to aerotolerant and generally catalase positive.

The genus Propionibacterium is divided in two groups based on habitat of origin:

classical or dairy propionibacteria (mainly isolated from dairy products such as cheese)

  • Propionibacterium acidipropionici
  • Propionibacterium microaerophilum
  • Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum
  • Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii
  • Propionibacterium jensenii
  • Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspecies shermanii
  • Propionibacterium thoenii

cutaneous propionibacteria (typically found on skin, also named “acnes group”)

  • Propionibacterium acidifaciens 
  • Propionibacterium acnes 
  • Propionibacterium australiense
  • Propionibacterium avidum
  • Propionibacterium granulosum
  • Propionibacterium propionicum

The dairy propionibacteria species are considered safe whereas cutaneous Propionibacterium species are pathogens.

The dairy propionibacteria do not normally belong to the human microbiota but can be isolated from various habitats including raw milk, dairy products, soil and fermenting food.  Dairy propionibacteria are used in the dairy industry as starter cultures for ripening Swiss cheeses, particularly in the creation of Emmental cheese, and to some extent, Jarlsberg cheese, Leerdammer and Maasdam cheese.  2  Industrial applications of Propionibacterium freudenreichii include production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), propionic acid, trehalose and conjugated linoleic acid.  

Criteria for the Use of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Dairy propionibacteria offer good prospects for their use as human probiotics due to the following qualities:  3

  • safety
  • gastrointestinal transit survival
  • adherence to intestinal cells and mucosa


Consumption of propionibacteria is considered safe since it is contained in Emmental cheese which is consumed worldwide.  It is estimated that Emmental cheese contains up to 1,000,000,000 (109) propionibacteria per gram.

In addition to its widespread consumption from Emmental cheese, Propionibacterium freudenreichii has received the “Generally Recognised As Safe” (GRAS) status and has been granted “Qualified presumption of safety” (QPS) status from the European food safety authority.

Lastly, there are no indication of side effects from consuming dairy propionibacteria that have been reported in any of the human trials.

Gastrointestinal transit survival

Dairy propionibacteria have shown good constitutional survival under digestive stress and their ability to survive low pH conditions of the stomach and exposure to bile.  4  Promising results of gut survival of dairy propionibacteria has been demonstrated in vivo in humans.  5

It is also evident that dairy propionibacteria has strong survival potential due to its role in the cheese making process, which imposes certain technological stressors on the bacteria. 

High levels of propionibacteria has been detected in feces which provides further proof that it can survive gastrointestinal transit.  Once consumption of the dairy propionibacteria ceased, levels in the feces declined.

Adherence to intestinal cells and mucosa

Dairy propionibacteria are able to adhere to immobilised mucus.  6  7  When Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was added to Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS the adhesion to intestinal mucus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS increased from 1.9 to 2.3%.  8 

Dairy propionibacteria also adheres in vitro to human intestinal epithelial cell lines.  9  10

Mechanism of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Propionibacterium freudenreichii ferments and converts lactate to form:

  • propionic acid (which favors the growth of bifidobacteria)  11 
  • acetic acid
  • carbon dioxide

In effect, Propionibacterium freudenreichii functions as a prebiotic in the colon by generating short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).  SCFA’s are powerful protectors of the large intestine since they:  12

  • protect the intestinal lining
  • down-regulate NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B)
  • support absorption of calcium, magnesium and potassium

Propionibactera also have profound probiotic effects.  These effects include:

  • production of bacteriocins  13
  • secretion of anti-fungal compounds  14  
  • secretion of anti-viral compounds  15
  • synthesis of vitamin B8 (biotin), B9 (folic acid) and B12 (cobalamin)  16  17
  • production of trehalose  18
  • production of conjugated linoleic acid  19
  • growth stimulation of other beneficial bacteria, like bifidobacteria  20
  • creation of a high level of β-galactosidase (lactase) activity  21
  • inhibition of beta-glucuronidase activities 22
  • reduction in pathogen adhesion to immobilised mucus  23
  • ability to aggregate with pathogenic bacteria  24
  • inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to a human intestinal epithelial cell line  25
  • ability to survive during gastric digestion

Propionibacterium freudenreichii produces a Bifidogenic Growth Stimulator (BGS) named ACNQ which selectively enhances the utilization of Oligosaccharides by Bifidobacteria.  A placebo-controlled study of the effects of BGS on fecal flora and stool frequency was carried out in healthy human subjects. A drink with the sterilized ET-3 culture was administered once a day for 7 days. Bifidobacterium percentage in the fecal flora and stool frequency were significantly increased by administration of the P. freudenreichii culture. The ACNQ exhibited growth stimulation of bifidobacteria at an extremely low concentration and enhanced the activities of NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase in bifidobacteria. These ACNQ-mediated reactions seem to play roles in NAD (P) +-regeneration processes and seem to be responsible for the growth stimulation of bifidobacteria.   26  27 

Propionibacterium freudenreichii seems to grow and perform in conjuction with another probiotic called Lactobacillus helveticus, even though Propionibacterium freudenreichii does not need Lactobacillus helveticus to work and flourish.  Lactobacillus helveticus releases amino acids and peptides that Propionibacterium freudenrechii utilize.  28 

Bifidobacterium is one of the most researched genus of the human microbiota that is used for probiotic purposes. The primary interest in Propionibacterium freudenreichii in the scientific research is its potential to enhance the indigenous bifidobacteria population. 29

The in vivo experiements with Propionibacterium freudenreichii resulted in modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota by decereasing Clostridium and Bacteroides.  30

Propionibacterium freudenreichii produces Trehalose in the colon which has been observed to reduce the level of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.  31  

Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a Chemopreventive Agent

Propionibacterium freudenreichii demonstrates great promise in acting as a chemopreventive and chemoprotective agent.  These attributes are accomplished through a number of mechanisms:

  • antimutagenic properties preventing mutations caused by various mutagenic agents  32
  • ability to bind, in vitro, carinogenic compounds:
    • mycotoxins  33
    • cyanotoxin microcystin-LR  37
    • plant lectins – concanavilin and jacalin  38
  • ability to bind to heavy metals
    • cadmium  39
    • lead  40
  • induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells  41
  • ability to lower and inhibit  beta-glucuronidase which is a risk factor for carcinogenesis  42

A number of research studies have shown that Propionibacterium freudenreichii is effective therapeutically in various cancers, especially colon cancer.  Table 1 lists the various cancers that have been treated with Propionibacterium freudenreichii:

Table 1: Propionibacterium freudenreichii Effects on Various Cancers

Breast cancer
To determine whether the purified 9c,11t conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, the main dietary isomer, is biologically active on mammary tumor growth, we carried out a dietary intervention study designed to compare its effects with those of a mixture of CLA isomers on the incidence and growth of autochthonous mammary tumors induced by methylnitrosourea in rats.1
Colon cancer
Furthermore, propionibacteria were able to decrease the proliferation index in the distal colon after treatment with DMH (P 2
Propionibacteria induce apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells via short-chain fatty acids acting on mitochondria3
The human probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii kills colorectal adenocarcinoma cells through apoptosis in vitro via its metabolites, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate and propionate.4
The bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease may contribute to the development of colon cancer by generating carcinogens. A reduction in the activity of these enzymes by certain lactic acid bacteria is considered to be beneficial. This study examined fecal beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease activities during administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 (LC705) together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp shermanii JS (PJS).5
Stomach cancer
This study investigated the potential for butyrate and propionate to alter cell viability, cell cycle regulation and intracellular protective mechanisms in a human gastric cancer cell line (Kato III). Kato III cells were incubated with butyrate or propionate for 24, 48 and 72 hr.6

Propionibacterium Effects on Various Disease and Conditions

Propionibacterium freudenreichii and other strains of propionibacterium have demonstrated promising properties in treating and preventing a number of conditions and diseases, especially those of the colon such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Colitis.  Table 2 lists the various conditions and diseases that have been studied using Propionibacterium freudenreichii and other strains of propionibacterium:

Table 2: Propionibacterium freudenreichii Effects on Various Disease and Conditions

In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study we randomized 1223 mothers with infants at high risk for allergy to receive a probiotic mixture (2 lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and propionibacteria) or placebo during the last month of pregnancy and their infants to receive it from birth until age 6 months.1
Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders. Bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) is a prebiotic preparation produced by Propionibacterium freudenreichii isolated from Swiss cheese. Previously BGS was shown to act in the colon as a growth stimulator of Bifidobacteria. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of BGS in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.2
Milk whey culture with Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a prebiotic preparation isolated from Swiss cheese. It selectively stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria through the action of its component 1, 4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. Recent reports have shown that this foodstuff ameliorates experimental colitis and human ulcerative colitis. We discuss the characteristics and the therapeutic application of this foodstuff for patients with ulcerative colitis.3
The anti-inflammatory mechanism of prebiotics has recently been shown to have an impact on the host immune system. DHNA from Propionibacterium freudenreichii is known to promote the proliferation of Bifidobacterium and can ameliorate colitis, although its mode of action remains unknown.4
1.4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA), a bifidogenic growth stimulator from Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is thought to have a beneficial effect as a prebiotic; however, its in vivo effect on intestinal inflammation remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral administration of DHNA can ameliorate dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms.5
Colonic infusion with Propionibacterium acidipropionici reduces severity of chemically-induced colitis in rats6
This study aimed to evaluate whether milk whey culture with Propinibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 (milk whey culture), which has been reported to have Bifidogenic activity, is effective on the colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats.7
Inhibits Candida
R eport that a cheese containing a mixture of probiotics ( L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus LC705 and P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS) reduced the risk of high yeast counts, especially Candida sp., in the mouth of elderly people.8
The effects of fermented milk whey containing novel bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) produced by Propionibacterium on fecal microflora, putrefactive metabolite, defecation frequency and fecal properties were studied in 18 senile volunteers (64-102 yr age) needed serious nursing-care taking enteral nutrition by tube feeding. The test powder food containing 0.4 g/day of freeze-dried BGS were given for 4 weeks. During BGS intake, defecation frequency and fecal quantity were increased significantly, the ratio of color of dark brown and strong odor of feces were decreased significantly.9
Some relief from constipation may be observed with the combination of L. rhamnosus/P. freudenreichii. This probiotic combination also reduced fecal enzyme activity. The tested probiotics did not affect the mucosal barrier.10
Immunomodulatory properties of 10 dairy propionibacteria, analyzed on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), revealed a highly strain-dependent induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Two selected strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii showed a protective effect against two models of colitis in mice, suggesting a probiotic potential predicted by immune-based selection criteria for these cheese starter bacteria.11
The development of a dairy Propionibacterium and its establishment in the gut were studied. Mice fed a conventional diet received a suspension of propionibacteria in skim milk provided in their water bottles for 7 d. Counts of propionibacteria in faeces and intestinal sections indicated that the strain used reached significant levels in the gut during treatment.12
It was observed that Lactobacillus casei was able to stimulate phagocytosis both by the cell wall and the peptidoglycan, whereas it did not produce changes in IgA. L. acidophilus, on the other hand, produced an increase in the levels of IgA without modifying phagocytosis. Propionibacterium acidipropionici only showed immunostimulating activity with the cell wall, but not with the peptidoglycan.13
Immunomodulation by probiotics is a subject of growing interest, but the knowledge of dose response and time profile relationships is minimal. In this study we examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS (PJS) on the proliferative activity of murine lymphocytes ex vivo.14
The efficacy of Propionibacterium jensenii 702 to stimulate a cell-mediated response to orally administered soluble Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens using a mouse model15
Immunomodulatory properties of 10 dairy propionibacteria, analyzed on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), revealed a highly strain-dependent induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Two selected strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii showed a protective effect against two models of colitis in mice, suggesting a probiotic potential predicted by immune-based selection criteria for these cheese starter bacteria.16
Feeding synbiotics to newborn infants was safe and seemed to increase resistance to respiratory infections during the first 2 years of life.17
Inhibits H. Pylori
The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the effect of recommended antimicrobial treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, consisting of clarithromycin, amoxicillin and lansoprazole, on intestinal microbiota and (ii) to determine the ability of a probiotic combination containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99 to prevent treatment-induced alterations in the intestinal microbiota.18
We characterize four probiotics and their combination in terms of pathogen adhesion, barrier function, cell death, and inflammatory response in Helicobacter pylori-infected epithelial cells. H. pylori-infected Caco-2 cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js, Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, or all four organisms in combination.19
Inflammation and IBD
P robiotic intervention with P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS in healthy adults led to a reduction in the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) compared to a placebo control.20
All tested bacteria induced TNF-alpha production. The best inducers of Th1 type cytokines IL-12 and IFN-gamma were Streptococcus and Leuconostoc strains. All Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium strains induced higher IL-10 production than other studied bacteria.21
Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet22
After the screening of microorganism culture, the culture of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 in the milk whey (milk whey culture) was found to stimulate the growth of our own Bifidobacteria in the colon but not the growth of other microorganisms.23
Our aim was to determine whether IBS-associated bacterial alterations were reduced during multispecies probiotic intervention consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99. The intervention has previously been shown to successfully alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS.24
To investigate the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) on abdominal symptoms, quality of life, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory markers in irritable bowel syndrome.25
To investigate the mode of action of a multispecies probiotic consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99 by monitoring its effects on intestinal microbiota and markers of microbial activity.26
I rritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common diagnoses in gastroenterology, but current therapies are inefficient. Recent clinical trials suggest beneficial effects of certain probiotics in IBS. Because of the heterogeneity of IBS a probiotic combination may be more efficient than a single strain. We screened for optimal strains, and developed a multispecies probiotic combination consisting of L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99.27