Monthly Archives: May 2016

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NIA’s Intervention Testing Program: Investigating treatments with the potential to extend lifespan and delay disease and dysfunction

The US National Institute on Aging currently funds an Intervention Testing Program (ITP) whereby investigators nominate compounds (based on specific molecular ageing theories) to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice. 

The principal goal of Phase I elements of the ITP is to identify compounds that delay or decelerate the aging process, using the commonly accepted endpoint of an increase in maximal longevity as a surrogate for an anti-aging effect attributable to a diet, drug, or genetic manipulation.

The ITP investigates treatments with the potential to extend lifespan and delay disease and dysfunction in mice. Such treatments include:

  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Foods
  • Diets
  • Dietary supplements
  • Plant extracts
  • Hormones
  • Peptides
  • Amino acids
  • Chelators
  • Redox agents
  • Other agents or mixtures of agents

The experiments are conducted in three research laboratories: one at the Jackson Laboratories, one at the University of Michigan, and one at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio.

Agents are administered, usually in the food or water, to groups of specific pathogen-free male and female mice of the UM-HET3 stock. Each mouse is observed until its natural death or until it becomes so severely ill that survival for more than an additional week seems very unlikely. The design includes sufficient numbers of mice (80 in each treatment group and 170 in the control group) to provide 80 percent power to detect a 10 percent increase in average lifespan.

Each mouse also is evaluated for a small set of age-sensitive traits, such as changes in the immune system, spontaneous activity, and lens turbidity. Mice not enrolled in the longevity study are exposed to each intervention to permit assessment of blood and tissue levels of the agents and to help determine if each agent is having its expected metabolic or physiological effect.

This article will focus on the natural compounds (agents) that have been submitted as testing agents to the NIA.  These natural agents are listed in the Table below:

Intervention Testing Program Compounds (Natural)

CompoundCohortYear SubmittedStatus
4-hydroxyl-alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (4-OH-PBN)Cohort 12004Study
Beta-guanidinopropionic AcidCohort 112015In process
Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE)Cohort 22005In process
CurcuminCohort 42007Study
Fish OilCohort 62010In process
GlycineCohort 102014In process
Green tea extractCohort 42007Study
InulinCohort 102014In process
Medium Chain Triglyceride OilCohort 42007Study
Methylene BlueCohort 52009In process
MitoQCohort 112015In process
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA)Cohort 12004Study 1 Study 2 Study 3
Oxaloacetic acidCohort 42007Study
Protandim®Cohort 72011In process
ResveratrolCohort 42007Study 1 Study 2
Ursolic Acid Cohort 92013In process

As of the date of publication of this article, the ITP has published studies on the following natural compounds (agents) that have been evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice:

  • 4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-OH-PBN)
  • Curcumin
  • Green tea extract (GTE)
  • Medium-chain triglyceride oil (MCTO)
  • Methlyene Blue (MB)
  • Nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA)
  • Oxaloacetic acid
  • Resveratrol

The results and abstracts of these published studies for these agents are listed in the Table below:

Interventions Testing Programs - Compounds Studied and Published

Interventions Testing Programs - Compounds Studied and Published   
CompoundAbstract of StudiesDate of StudyReferences
4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-OH-PBN)
4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-OH-PBN) did not altered survivalMarch 2008Study
Curcumin
Previous findings were highly suggestive that curcumin would extend life span in our mouse model. The intended concentration of curcumin used in the present study (2000 ppm in the diet) and the method of delivery (in the diet) were the same as those used in previous life-span studies. The actual concentration of curcumin measured in randomly chosen pellets in the present study was reasonably close to 2000 ppm, that is, 1682 ± 126 ppm (data not shown). Moreover, in the present study, curcumin reduced body weights of female mice at all ages. This indicates that at this dose, curcumin has a biological effect, at least in females. Given its reported effects on extending life span in both rats and mice, and the broadly anti-aging effects of curcumin, it is not clear why it had no effect on life span in UM-HET3 mice at any of the three ITP sites.March 2012Study
Green tea extract (GTE)
The pattern of survival in the GTE-treated females, and in the males at TJL and UM, are consistent with the idea that this agent might reduce mortality rate at early ages while at the same time increasing it at later ages. On the other hand, measures of locomotor activity as an indicator of health span did not show any differences between GTE-treated groups and controls. Further studies, in which GTE is provided to young and middle-aged adults but then removed at later ages, might well be justified by these initial observations.
Secondary analysis suggested that GTE might diminish the risk of midlife deaths in females only.
March 2012Study
Medium-chain triglyceride oil (MCTO)
Since no previous studies reported on the effects of MCTO on life span, MCTO was tested in the present study to determine its effects on life span. Despite its many reported health benefits, there was no statistically significant effect of MCT on median or maximum life span in the current study.March 2012Study
Methlyene Blue (MB)
MB did not alter median lifespan of males or females, but did produce a small, statistically significant (6%, P = 0.004) increase in female maximum lifespan.November 2013Study
Nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA)
NDGA leads to a significant decline in mortality risk in the first half of the lifespan.
Males in the NDGA group had significantly improved survival (P = 0.0004), with significant effects noted at TJL (P < 0.01) and UT (P < 0.04).
Although we do not yet know whether NDGA will extend maximum lifespan, our data show that this compound does diminish mortality risks among genetically heterogeneous, male, adult mice prior to the last third of the expected lifespan, and thus suggest that further studies of its effects on development and aging are likely to be worthwhile.
March 2008Study 1
Results showed that NDGA and aspirin each increase survival in male UM-HET3 mice, but not in females.
Pooling data from all three sites, a log-rank test showed that both NDGA (p=0.0006) and aspirin (p=0.01) led to increased lifespan of male mice.
The present results are consistent with previous reports that NDGA increases lifespan in both insects and mammals. Thus, NDGA has been reported to increase lifespan in fruit flies, mosquitoes, and rats
October 2008Study 2
NDGA increased male median lifespan by 8-10% at three different doses, with P-values ranging from 0.04 to 0.005. Females did not show a lifespan benefit from NDGA, even at a dose that produced blood levels similar to those in males, which did show a strong lifespan benefit.November 2013Study 3
Oxaloacetic acid
In the present study, we evaluated whether OAA could increase life span in mice under the ITP protocol. No indication of a life-span benefit in either sex was found. However, we also determined that OAA is quite labile under the storage conditions used, such that the amount of OAA received by the mice was no more than 25% of the intended amount.March 2012Study
Resveratrol
Resveratrol (at 300 and 1200 ppm food) did not have significant effects on survival in male or female mice.
Our resveratrol data thus serve to confirm the absence of any effect of this agent on mouse life span, using doses two- to eightfold higher than the dose studied by Pearson and colleagues and using genetically heterogeneous mice of both sexes rather than male C57BL/6Nia mice alone.
Clearly more work is called for to identify the pathway(s) by which resveratrol modulates age-sensitive traits in mice and imparts beneficial effects in several rodent models of age-dependent diseases.
February 2011Study 1
Resveratrol did not have a statistically significant effect on life span of male or female mice, by log-rank test, at the concentrations tested.March 2012Study 2


Informational References:

NIA’s Interventions Testing Program

Published papers that explain the NIA’s Interventions Testing Program:

Warner, H. R., Ingram, D., Miller, R. A., Nadon, N. L. and Richardson, A. G. (2000) Meeting Report: Program for testing biological interventions to promote healthy aging. Mechanisms of Aging and Development 115:199-208. PubMed

Miller, R. A., Harrison, D. E., Astle, C. M., Floyd, R. A., Flurkey, K., Hensley, K. L., Javors, M. A., Leeuwenburgh, C., Nelson, J. F., Ongini, E., Nadon, N. L., Warner, H. R., and Strong, R. (2007) NIA Interventions Testing Program: Study Design and an Interim Report. Aging Cell 6:565-575. PMID PMC2695675.

Nadon, N. L., Strong, R., Miller, R. A., Nelson, J., Javors, M., Sharp, Z. D., Peralba, J. M. and Harrison, D. E. (2008) Design of Aging Intervention Studies: the NIA Interventions Testing Program. AGE 30:187-199. [AGE online – http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-008-9048-1 ; NIHMSID47726]


Resources:

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester – Bee Propolis

Curcumin

Fish Oil

Glycine

Green tea extract

Inulin

Medium Chain Triglyceride Oil

MitoQ

Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid – Pure Chaparral leaf (larrea tridentata)

Note:  Nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA) is not sold to the public as a nutritional supplement.  However Chaparral leaf contains a percentage of Nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA).

Oxaloacetic acid

Protandim®

Resveratrol

Ursolic Acid


 

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Ashitaba: Tomorrow’s Leaf

Ashitaba, which is the common name used in Japan, is botanically known as Angelica keiskei or Angelica Keiskei Koidzumi. The English translation of the Japanese word “Ashitaba” (アシタバ or 明日葉) is “Tomorrow’s Leaf”. Ashita means ‘tomorrow and ba means ‘leaf.’ The name stems from the plant’s ability to quickly regenerate new leaves after taking cuttings. This give an indication of its potential for longevity of life.

asitab_5

Ashitaba plant

There are two separate substances (products) that are derived from the Ashitaba plant.

The first is the hot-air dried powder of Ashitaba from the leaves and stems. The color of this powder is bright green. The leaves of the Ashitaba plant contain approximately 0.25% to 0.35% chalcones.

The second is the powder made from the unique yellow sap which is collected from the Ashitaba’s stem. It is commonly called Ashitaba Chalcone Powder which consists up to 8% chalcones. The color of Ashitaba Chalcone Powder is bright yellow and is a fat-soluble substance.

Although the green Ashitaba powder from the leaves and stems provide nutritional and health benefits, it is the Ashitaba Chalcone Powder (bright yellow powder from the sap of the stem) that is the Chalconoids are natural phenols related to chalcone. They form the central core for a variety of important biological compounds.

997422_orig

Chalcone sap from Ashitaba stem

Chalcones are the active factors in Angelica Keiskei Koidzumi. At least 20 chalcones have been identified in Angelica Keiskei.

Ashitaba contains a thick, sticky yellow sap, which is not found in other celery plants, and are unique to this strain of angelica. This yellowish element in Ashitaba contain the chalconoids.


To learn more about about the health and medical benefits of Ashitaba, download the PDF E-Book: The Health and Medicinal Benefits of Ashitaba

Note: PDF files require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader


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Ashwagandha preserves the health of the aging brain

Ashwagandha is a medicinal plant used in India to treat a wide range of age-related disorders.53-63 Its most remarkable effect may involve its ability to preserve the health of the aging brain.

Ashwagandha offers myriad neuroprotective benefits. For example, one study showed that when given to mice, ashwagandha extract promotes memory retention, even when amnesia has been induced experimentally.60 Another study found that ashwagandha extract is capable of protecting the brains of laboratory rats against experimentally induced stroke.61

Ashwagandha constituents have also been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that is in dangerously short supply in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease sufferers.62 This AChE-blocking action is similar to that of prescription drugs such as Aricept® that are currently used to treat Alzheimer’s symptoms.

Exciting new research indicates that ashwagandha extract is capable of halting and even repairing damage to brain cells in an experimentally induced model of Alzheimer’s disease.63 Scientists in Japan induced Alzheimer’s-type brain cell atrophy and loss of synaptic function in mice by exposing them to the toxic protein Abeta, which has been implicated in the genesis of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. “Subsequent treatment with [a constituent of ashwagandha] induced significant regeneration of both axons and dendrites, in addition to the reconstruction of pre- and postsynapses in the neurons,” according to the scientists.63

Excerpt from Preserving and Restoring Brain Function By Dale Kiefer (Life Extension)


References:

53. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study. Phytomedicine. 2000 Dec;7(6):463-9.

54. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334-46.

55. Owais M, Sharad KS, Shehbaz A, Saleemuddin M. Antibacterial efficacy of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis. Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):229-35.

56. Mohan R, Hammers HJ, Bargagna-Mohan P, et al. Withaferin A is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(2):115-22.

57. Prakash J, Gupta SK, Dinda AK. Withania somnifera root extract prevents DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice. Nutr Cancer. 2002;42(1):91-7.

58. Padmavathi B, Rath PC, Rao AR, Singh RP. Roots of Withania somniferainhibit forestomach and skin carcinogenesis in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Mar;2(1):99-105.

59. Andallu B, Radhika B. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Jun;38(6):607-9.

60. Dhuley JN. Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res. 2001 Sep;15(6):524-8.

61. Chaudhary G, Sharma U, Jagannathan NR, Gupta YK. Evaluation of Withania somnifera in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 May;30(5-6):399-404.

62. Choudhary MI, Yousuf S, Nawaz SA, Ahmed S, Atta uR. Cholinesterase inhibiting withanolides from Withania somnifera. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Nov;52(11):1358-61.

63. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;144(7):961-71.


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The Klinghardt Neurotoxin Elimination Protocol

In October 2002, Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt M.D., Ph.D, gave a lecture at the Jean Piaget Department at the University of Geneva, Switzerland Oct.2002 to physicians and dentists from Europe, Israel, several Arab countries and Asia.

In this talk Dr. Klinghardt explains the detrimental effects of neurotoxins and provides a protocol on how to eliminate and detoxify these neurotoxins from the body. The main factors in this elimination protocol is:

  • Chlorella
  • Cilantro

“Neurotoxins are substances attracted to the mammalian nervous system. They are absorbed by nerve endings and travel inside the neuron to the cell body. On their way they disrupt vital functions of the nerve cell, such as axonal transport of nutrients, mitochondrial respiration and proper DNA transcription.

Here is an incomplete list of common neurotoxins in order of importance:

(i) Heavy metals: such as mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminum.

(ii) Biotoxins: such as tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin (botox), ascaridin (from intestinal parasites), unspecified toxins from streptococci, staphylococci, lyme disease, clamydia, tuberculosis, fungal toxins and toxins produced by viruses. Biotoxins are minute molecules (200-1000 kilodaltons) containing nitrogen and sulfur. They belong to a group of chemical messengers which microorganisms use to control the host’s immune system, host behavior and the host’s eating habits.

(iii) Xenobiotics (man-made environmental toxins): such as dioxin, phthalates, formaldehyde, insecticides, wood preservatives, PCBs etc.

(iv) Food Preservatives, excitotoxins and cosmetics: such as aspartame (diet sweeteners) food colorings, fluoride, methyl-and propyl-paraben, etc.

I have found that mercury in its different chemical forms has a synergistic amplifying effect with all other neurotoxins. When mercury is removed, the body starts to more effectively eliminate all other neurotoxins, even if they are not addressed.”

The summary of the elimination protocol is as follows:

Chlorella

“Take 30 minutes before the main meals and at bedtime. This way chlorella is exactly in that portion of the small intestine where the bile squirts into the gut at the beginning of the meal, carrying with it toxic metals and other toxic waste. These are bound by the chlorella cell wall and carried out via the digestive tract.”

Cilantro

“Give 10 drops in hot water at bedtime (during the vagus-dominant sleep phase many detox functions are most active) or 30 minutes after taking chlorella. Cilantro causes the gallbladder to dump bile – containing the excreted neurotoxins – into the small intestine. The bile-release occurs naturally as we are eating and is much enhanced by cilantro. If no chlorella is taken, most neurotoxins are reabsorbed on the way down the small intestine by the abundant nerve endings of the enteric nervous system).”

Read Full Paper: The Klinghardt Neurotoxin Elimination Protocol


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Styphnolobium japonicum (Huai Hua): Promoter of Cardiovascular Health

Styphnolobium japonicum (commonly known as the Pagoda Tree) and formerly known as Sophora japonica, (Chinese: ; pinyin: huái hua)is a species of tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.

Three very unique antioxidants have been identified from Styphnolobium japonicum:  1

  • kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 –> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 –> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
  • kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 –> 6)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 –> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
  • kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 –> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside

These three compounds showed antioxidative activity in DPPH and cytochrome-c assay using HL-60 cell system.

Styphnolobium japonicum promotes overall cardiovascular system health through its two identified compounds:

  • Troxerutin
    • Troxerutin is a flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is more accurately a hydroxyethylrutoside.
  • Oxymatrine
    • Oxymatrine (matrine oxide, matrine N-oxide, matrine 1-oxide) is one of many quinolizidine alkaloid compounds extracted from the root of Styphnolobium japonicum.

The Table below lists the health benefits of Styphnolobium japonicum through its two main substances, Troxerutin and Oxymatrine:

Health Benefits of Styphnolobium japonicum (Troxerutin and Oxymatrine)

SubstanceConditionEffect/BenefitReference(s)
Troxerutin
Vasoprotective
Effectiveness of Troxerutin in association with Pycnogenol in the pharmacological treatment of venous insufficiency1
Cognitive deficits
Results suggest that troxerutin could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease.2
Haemorrhoids
Troxerutin may be used in the treatment of haemorrhoids3
Microangiopermeability
Troxerutin may alleviate and prevent Microangiopermeability4
Venous insufficiency
Troxerutin is a naturally fluorescent flavonoid which has been known to improve subjective signs of patients with chronic venous insufficiency.5
Gamma-radiation
In addition to anti-erythrocytic, anti-thrombic, fibrinolytic and oedema-protective rheological activity, troxerutin offers protection against gamma-radiation-induced micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks and enhances repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks.6
Oxymatrine
Antitumor activities
Results demonstrate that matrine possesses strong antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are the likely mechanisms responsible for matrine's antitumor activities.7
Apoptosis
Results demonstrate that matrine triggers apoptosis of K562 cells primarily through the mitochondrial pathway and that matrine is a potential anti-tumor drug.8
Cardiac ischemia
The beneficial effects of oxymatrine were likely mediated by an inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA production) and an increase in endogenous antioxidant activity (SOD), activation of the survival signaling molecule (Bcl-2), and a reduction of apoptotic mediator (Fas) and intracellular Ca2+ overload.9
Myocardial injury
Results indicate that Oxymatrine (OMT) exhibits substantial therapeutic potential for the treatment of septic shock‑induced myocardial injury through inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.10
Antiarrhythmic
Results showed that administration of oxymatrine significantly delayed the onset of ventricular arrhythmia, decreased the duration of ventricular arrhythmia and reduced the arrhythmia score of arrhythmic rats. The beneficial effects of oxymatrine may be related to the shortening of APD through reduction of I(Ca-L) , enhancement of I(to) and inhibition of I(K1).11
Heart failure
Findings suggest that oxymatrine could improve heart failure by improving the cardiac function and that this amelioration is associated with upregulation of SERCA2a and DHPR.12
Myocardial fibrosis
Results of this research indicated that oxymatrine might protect against myocardial fibrosis and the mechanism may be involved in modulating TGF-β(1)-Smads signal pathway.13


Resources:

BioFoundations.net – Huai Hua

NutriCargo – Pagoda Tree Powdered Extract


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Spices for Neuroprotection

The Global Prevalence of Neurological Disorders

Neurological disorders are a group of progressive disorders that damage or destroy the function of the neurons and the brain.  With the ongoing aging population, especially with the baby-boomer population in the United States, the issue of addressing these neurological disorders are of paramount importance.

A 2006 report from the World Health Organization (WHO) shows that neurological disorders, ranging from epilepsy to Alzheimer disease, from stroke to headache, affect up to one billion people worldwide. Neurological disorders also include brain injuries, neuroinfections, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease.   1

The report, Neurological disorders: Public health challenges, reveals that of the one billion people affected worldwide, 50 million suffer from epilepsy and 24 million from Alzheimer and other dementias. Neurological disorders affect people in all countries, irrespective of age, sex, education or income.  1

According to a study published in the June 2005 edition of the European Journal of Neurology, an estimated 6.8 million people die every year as a result of neurological disorders. In Europe, the economic cost of neurological diseases was estimated at about 139 billion euros in 2004.

An updated statement by the World Health Organization (WHO) from February 2014 on how people are effected by neurological disorders states:

“Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are affected by neurological disorders. Approximately 6.2 million people die because of stroke each year; over 80% of deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries. More than 50 million people have epilepsy worldwide. It is estimated that there are globally 35.6 million people with dementia with 7.7 million new cases every year – Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia and may contribute to 60–70% of cases. The prevalence of migraine is more than 10% worldwide.”   2

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthy Aging Program, research in prevention and treatment of mental health and related brain health is of great importance.  They state that,

“Because mental health is essential to overall health and well-being, it must be recognized and treated in all Americans, including older adults, with the same urgency as physical health. For this reason, mental health is becoming an increasingly important part of the public health mission.”   3

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started the Healthy Brain Initiative which fills

“the need for a clearly delineated public health role comes at a critical time given the dramatic aging of the U.S. population, scientific advancements in knowledge about risk behaviors (e.g., lack of physical activity, uncontrolled high blood pressure) related to cognitive decline, and the growing awareness of the significant health, social, and economic burdens associated with cognitive decline.”  4

The Aging Brain and its Changing Biochemistry

The biochemistry of the brain changes as we age and as a result the structural integrity and functions of the brain may be compromised. Some of the biochemical changes of the brain include:

  • The loss of key neurotransmitters
  • Excess glucocorticoid steroids caused by long-term chronic stress
  • The shrinkage and stiffening of neurons
  • Inflammation of neurons
  • Reduction in chemical messengers
  • Neuronal connections are lost
  • Neurotransmitter imbalances
  • Mutations in mitochondria
  • Shrinkage of neurons (Cerebral atrophy)
  • Loss of myelin sheath
  • Loss of synapses
  • No new synapses
  • Senile plaques
  • Neurofibrillary tangles

Preventive steps can be taken to preserve a youthful neurological biochemistry. Various spices and their active compounds have been studied for their ability to protect the brain from the changes associated with aging.  The extensive studies on spices and their active compounds illustrate the power of spices to target inflammatory pathways thus preventing neurodegenerative and neurological diseases.*

There are a number of approaches to enhance brain function:

  • Increase circulation and oxygenation to the brain
  • Maintain the structural and functional integrity of the neuronal membranes
  • Protect the brain from free radical oxidative stress
  • Improve energy production in the brain
  • Increase the efficiency that neurons communicate with one another through their synaptic connections, known as neurotransmitters.
  • Increasing the number of brain cells, neurons, that the brain possesses by a process called neurogenesis

Spices for Neuroprotection

A spice is defined as a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or flower of a plant.  Various spices come from:

  • berries (peppercorns)
  • roots (ginger, turmeric)
  • seeds (nutmeg, sesame)
  • flower buds (cloves)
  • stamen of flowers (saffron)
  • bark (Ceylon cinnamon)

Distinguished from a spice is an herb, which, by definition, is derived from the leafy portions of a plant, either dried or fresh. 

In this article and analysis, certain herbs, by definition, (e.g., rosemary, basil, etc.) are included and considered as a spice for academic purposes.

The following list of 36 spices have been identified by scientific studies as substances that are effective in the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders or neurodegenerative diseases:*

The focus of this article is on the identification of the spices for neuroprotection and the conditions that are effected by these spices.  This article is not an in-depth analysis of each spice or health condition.

(The link associated with each spice opens to a Spice encyclopedia named Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages or to Wikipedia.  These links will provide a comprehensive explanation of each spice)

Summary of Analysis of Spices and Conditions

The approach of this article is to examine the various spices that have a positive and therapeutic effect on certain neurological conditions. 

Before listing the detailed analysis in Tables C and D, a summary of the detailed analysis is listed in the 2 Tables (Tables A and B) and 2 Graphs (Graph A and B). 

The detailed analysis is listed in the next section with scientific abstracts and references.

The Summary of Spices for Spices and Conditions is listed in the following Tables and Graphs:

  • Table A – Summary of Spices (By Spice)
  • Graph A – Summary of Conditions per Spice
  • Table B – Summary of Spices (By Condition)
  • Graph B – Summary of Spices by Condition

Summary of Spices (By Spice)

The following 19 spices have been identified to be effective against certain neurological conditions.  These 19 spices are are taken out of the full list of 36 spices due to the fact that they have two (2) or more scientific studies published about their theraputic benefits.

  • Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)
  • Black pepper (piper Nigrum)
  • True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) 
  • Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)
  • Galangal (Alpinia galanga)
  • Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)
  • Garlic (Allium sativum)
  • Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)
  • Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
  • Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)
  • Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
  • Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)
  • Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
  • Saffron (Crocus sativus)
  • Sage (Salvia officinalis)
  • Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)
  • Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)
  • Tumeric (Curcuma longa)

Graph A – Summary of Conditions per Spice

[visualizer id=”3167″]

Table A – Summary of Spices (By Spice)

Table A – Summary of Spices (By Spice)

SpiceCondition# of StudiesTotal Conditions
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)10
Anxiety1
Epilepsy1
Neuropathy1
Attention2
Cerebral Ischemia1
Mood1
Memory1
Alzheimer’s1
Parkinson’s1
Glioblastoma1
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)6
Memory2
Alzheimer’s1
Neurogenesis2
Depression4
Memory1
Epilepsy1
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)3
Alzheimer’s3
Parkinson’s1
Dementia1
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)8
Memory1
Depression2
Alzheimer’s1
Neurogenesis1
Inhibits MAO-A1
Parkinson’s2
Epilepsy1
Neuropathy1
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)3
Memory1
Acetylcholinesterase1
Dementia1
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)3
Alzheimer’s1
Brain Tumor1
Cerebral Ischemia1
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)2
Cerebral Ischemia1
Glioblastomas4
Garlic (Allium sativum)2
Alzheimer’s1
Memory1
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)3
Alzheimer’s11
Memory4
Stress1
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)8
Butyrylcholinesterase1
Alzheimer’s3
Anxiety1
Depression2
Memory1
Cerebrovascular1
Parkinson’s2
Neuroblastoma2
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)6
Anxiety1
Dementia1
Stress1
Alzheimer’s1
Acetylcholinerase1
Glioblastomas1
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)4
Anxiety1
Depression1
Learning1
Memory1
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)3
Alzheimer’s1
Cerebral Ischemia4
Brain tumor2
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)6
Alzheimer’s2
Depression1
Neurogenesis2
Memory1
Concentration1
Parkinson’s1
Saffron (Crocus sativus)9
Anxiety1
Alzheimer’s2
Obsessive-compulsive disorder1
Memory1
Depression1
Multiple Sclerosis1
Cerebral ischemia1
Age Related Cognitive Decline1
Excitotoxicity1
Sage (Salvia officinalis)8
Cognitive performance1
Attention1
Memory1
Anxiety1
Acetylcholinesterase1
Mood1
Neurogenesis1
Alzheimer’s1
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)3
Acetylcholinesterase1
Memory1
Alzheimer’s1
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)5
Dopamine1
Cerebrovascular1
Cerebral ischemia2
Alzheimer’s1
Cerebral blood flow1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)10
Serotonin1
Neurogenesis1
Depression2
Stress1
Multiple Sclerosis4
Parkinson’s2
Alzheimer’s10
Epilepsy1
Brain tumor13
Cerebral ischemic6

Summary of Spices (By Condition)

The following 14 conditions have been identified by the scientific research as being conditions that are effected by the full list of 36 spices.  There are actually more conditions that are effected by the 36 spices but this list of 14 conditions are the main conditions effected.

  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Anxiety
  • Brain Tumor
  • Cerebral Ischemia
  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy
  • Glioblastoma
  • Memory
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Neurogenesis
  • Parkinson’s
  • Stress

Graph B – Summary of Spices by Condition

[visualizer id=”3136″]

Table B – Summary of Spices (By Condition)

Table B – Summary of Spices (By Condition)

ConditionSpice# of Studies Per Spice# of Spices Per Condition
Acetylcholinesterase7
Basil1
Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum)1
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)1
Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta)1
Sage (Salvia officinalis)1
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)1
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)1
Alzheimer’s19
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)1
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)3
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)1
Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare)1
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)1
Garlic (Allium sativum)1
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)11
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)3
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)1
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)1
Angelica sinensis1
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)2
Saffron (Crocus sativus)2
Sage (Salvia officinalis)1
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)1
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)10
West African Pepper (Piper guineense)1
Anxiety10
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum)1
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)1
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)1
Kokum (Garcinia indica)1
Lemongrass1
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)1
Saffron (Crocus sativus)1
Sage (Salvia officinalis)1
West African Pepper (Piper guineense)1
Brain Tumor7
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)1
Basil1
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)2
Angelica sinensis2
Red chili (Capsaicin)5
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)13
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)1
Cerebral Ischemia12
Fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare)1
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)1
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)1
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)1
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
Oregano (Origanum vulgare)1
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)4
Saffron (Crocus sativus)1
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)1
Sesame Seed1
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)6
Dementia3
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)1
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)1
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)1
Depression7
Allspice (Pimenta dioica)1
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)4
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)2
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)1
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)1
Saffron (Crocus sativus)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)2
Epilepsy6
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)1
Celery Seed (Apium graveolens)1
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)1
Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)1
Glioblastoma3
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)4
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)1
Memory14
Asafoetida (Ferula foetida (also known as Ferula asafoetida))1
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)3
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)1
Cumin Seed (Cuminum cyminum)1
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)1
Garlic (Allium sativum)1
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)4
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)1
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)1
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)1
Saffron (Crocus sativus)1
Sage (Salvia officinalis)1
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)1
Multiple Sclerosis2
Saffron (Crocus sativus)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)4
Neurogenesis6
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)2
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)1
Kokum (Garcinia indica)1
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)2
Sage (Salvia officinalis)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)1
Parkinson’s7
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)1
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)1
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)2
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)2
Kokum (Garcinia indica)1
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)2
Stress3
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)1
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)1
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)1

Detailed Analysis of Spices and Conditions

The following two Tables list the detailed analysis of the 36 spices for neuroprotection.

  • Table C – Detailed Analysis of Spices (By Spices)  
  • Table D – Detailed Analysis of Spices (By Condition)

Table C – Detailed Analysis of Spices (By Spices)  

The following Table lists the 36 spices that have a theraputic effect on certain neurological conditions.*  Each spice is listed with the corresponding conditions, an abstract of the health effect and a reference to a scientific study or research article.

Table C - Detailed Analysis of Spices (By Spices)

SpiceConditionHealth EffectReference
Allspice (Pimenta dioica)
Depression
Induced BDNF and MT-III in the hippocampus of mice R
Asafoetida (Ferula foetida (also known as Ferula asafoetida))
Memory
Asafetida may improve Memory (due to the Azerin content of Asafetida)R R
Basil
Acetylcholinesterase
Inhibited acetylcholinesteraseR
Brain tumor
Inhibited IL-1β or TNF-α-induced C6 glioma invasion through suppressing the association of ZIP/p62 with PKC-zeta and downregulating MMP-9 expression via Ursolic acidR
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)
Anxiety
May reduce AnxietyR
Epilepsy
May be useful for the treatment of EpilepsyR
Neuropathy
May help to prevent/treat (diabetic) NeuropathyR
Attention
Improve attention processingR
Cerebral Ischemia
May have protective effects in cerebral ischemiaR
Mood
Elevation of mood state with supplementationR
Memory
Associated with improved memory formationR
Attention
May improve attention and cognitionR
Alzheimer’s
Has anti-apoptotic potential to diminish β-amyloid peptide 1-40 sequence (Aβ1-40)-induced neuronal cell death in primary cultured cerebellar granule neuronsR
Parkinson’sProtects against α-synuclein (αSN)-induced synaptic toxicity in rat hippocampal and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronsR R
Glioblastoma
Selectively inhibits the clonogenicity of glioblastoma cells as compared to normal human astrocytesR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)
Memory
Piperine, a main active alkaloid in fruit of Piper nigrum, improves memory performanceR
Improved memory impairment and neurodegenerationR
Alzheimer’s
Improve cognitive function against cognitive deficit condition including in Alzheimer's disease condition (from piperieR R
Neurogenesis
Piperine also demonstrated the neurotrophic effect in hippocampusR
Upregulated progenitor cell proliferation of hippocampus and an elevation of BDNF levelR
Depression
Antidepressant-like effect of piperine, which may be closely related to the elevation of hippocampal BDNF level.R R
Inhibited the growth of cultured neurons from embryonic rat brainR
Showed antidepressant activity, modulated serotonergic systemR
Protected mice from CMS, upregulated BDNFR
Memory
Improved memory impairment and neurodegenerationR
Epilepsy
Prolonged anticonvulsant activity against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice and against seizures induced in T.O. mice by NMDLAR
Celery Seed (Apium graveolens)
Epilepsy
Reduced seizure phenotype in a Drosophila model of epilepsyR
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Alzheimer’s
May help to prevent/treat Alzheimer's Disease (by inhibiting tau aggregation and filament formation)R
Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Parkinson’s
Used to halt progression of Parkinson's disease. Oral treatment of MPTP-intoxicated mice with cinnamon powder and NaB reduced the expression of iNOS and protected Parkin/DJ-1 in the nigra. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions by cinnamon in MPTP-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that cinnamon may be beneficial for PD patients. R
Dementia
May enhance of cognitive processing in dementia patientsR
Alzheimer’s
Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)
Memory
Clove oil can reverse the short-term and long-term memory deficits induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i. p.) and this effect can, to some extent, be attributed to decreased oxidative stress.R R
Depression
Eugenol possesses an antidepressant-like activity.R
Showed antidepressant-like activity and induced expression of MT-III in the hippocampusR
Alzheimer’s
A body of evidence suggests that eugenol can be used as a drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).R
Neurogenesis
Eugenol, like other antidepressants, increases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in the hippocampus, which is necessary for an antidepressant to exhibit its activity.R
Inhibits MAO-A
Eugenol inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and may restore monoamines that are decreased in the brain of patients with depression.R
Parkinson’s
Eugenol protected mice from 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s diseaseR
Protected mice from 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s diseaseR
Epilepsy
Suppressed epileptiform field potentials and spreading depression in rat neocortical and hippocampal tissuesR
Neuropathy
Alleviated neuropathic painR
Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum)
Anxiety
May alleviate anxietyR
Acetylcholinesterase
Inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitroR
Cumin Seed (Cuminum cyminum)
Memory
Study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extractR
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)
Memory
Murraya koenigii (curry leaf extract) has been shown to improve memory in animal models, perhaps by reducing cholinesterase activityR R
Acetylcholinesterase
The AChE inhibitory activity of a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Murraya koenigiiR
Dementia
Alkaloidal extract from M. koenigii leaves (MKA) to be a useful remedy in the management of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.R
Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare)
Alzheimer’s
F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.R
Cerebral Ischemia
The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. R
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)
Alzheimer’s
May be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's type of amnesiaR
Brain Tumor
Anti-tumor properties of the antioxidant 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a ginger-derived natural product extract from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galanga, on brain tumors.R
Cerebral Ischemia
Pinocembrin, an active ingedient in alpinia galanga, may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce cerebral ischemiaR
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)
Cerebral Ischemia
Inhibited kainic acid-triggered neuronal cell death and decreased infarct volume in the transient MCAO model of strokesR
Glioblastomas
Inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cellsR
Bound to TrkA, prevented glutamate-induced neuronal cell death, induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cellsR
Inhibited the growth of orthotopic glioma, induced apoptosisR
Inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cellsR
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Alzheimer’s
Garlic extract exhibits antiamyloidogenic activity on amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis: relevance to Alzheimer's disease. The findings suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain.R
Memory
Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)
Alzheimer’s
Compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE in helping prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and lowering the risk of dementia and AD.R
This review encompasses multiple health effects of garlic and its constituents with reference to neuroprotection. Possible potential of dietary garlic as an alternative herbal pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's disease is discussed.R
Feeding of aged garlic extract prevented deterioration of hippocampal based memory tasks in these mice, suggesting that aged garlic extract has a potential for preventing AD progression.R
S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), one of the organosulfur compounds found in aged garlic extract, has been shown to possess various biological effects including neurotrophic activity. These results suggest that SAC could protect against the neuronal cell death that is triggered by ER dysfunction in the hippocampus, and that it has no effect on neuronal cell death that is dependent upon the caspase-3 mediated pathway.R
In neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), apoptosis results in the loss of valuable neurons. A key mechanism in apoptosis is the activation of caspase-3. Caspase-3 activity first becomes detectable early in apoptosis, continues to increase as cells undergo apoptosis, and rapidly declines in late stages of apoptosis. As a caspase-3 inhibitor, AGE may be effective in reducing apoptotic death of neurons since caspase inhibitors have been shown to inhibit neuronal cell death. We propose a scheme for the ameliorative effect of AGE on deleterious effects of beta-amyloid and possibly uncontrolled caspase-3 activity.R
Dietary garlic increased sAPPalpha by 25% and decreased Abeta40 and Abeta42 by 31% and 32%, respectively, compared to untreated Tgs. These results suggest a simple and non-invasive dietary therapy for reducing risk of AD in probable cases and reducing preexisting amyloid burden in clinically diagnosed AD cases.R
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) and S-allyl cysteine (SAC) on Abeta(25-35)-induced apoptosis and ROS generation in a rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. Our data suggest that ROS may be involved in Ab-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. They further suggest that garlic compounds can reduce apoptosis, possibly by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defenses.. R
Reduced Abeta-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Our data suggest that ROS may be involved in Ab-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. They further suggest that garlic compounds can reduce apoptosis, possibly by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defenses.R
Inhibited Abeta fibrillation and destabilized Abeta fibrilsR
Inhibited Abeta fibrillogenesis in human brain. The findings suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain.R
Exerted antiamyloidogenic effects. If validated pre-clinically, dietary intervention with herbal alternative such as AGE having pleiotropic useful properties and least adverse effects may provide greater therapeutic benefit over a single-ingredient synthetic pharmaceutical drug having serious side effects in treating Alzheimer's disease.R
Memory
We first investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the longevity and learning performances in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM). The degree of shrinkage in the frontal cerebrum was 2–9% in the SAMP10. Chronic ingestion of AGE prevented this atrophy and kept the brain size at the control level. These results suggest that AGE has an antiaging effect on the SAM.R
Aged garlic extract (AGE) produces neurotrophic effects on cultured fetal rat hippocampal neurons. These studies examined the molecular events triggered by AGE that might account for a suppression of neuronal cell death. Further, our results suggest that α2MRP may function at the initial step of the molecular events triggered by AGE and play an important role in the survival of hippocampal neurons.R
The effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on longevity and learning and memory performances were studied in the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM). The beneficial effects of AGE were observed in a memory retention process in the step-down test and in an acquisition stage in lever-press test in SAM R1. These results suggest the possibility that AGE might be useful for treating physiological aging and age-related memory deficits in humans.R
Treatment with AGE in SAMP10 prevented the decrease in brain weight and the atrophic changes in frontal brain at 12 months of age. These results raise the possibility that AGE prevents physiological ageing and may be beneficial for age-related cognitive disorders in humans.R
Stress
We determined the effect of Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) on damage caused to immune function by a psychological stress using a communication box. These results indicate that psychological stress qualitatively and quantitatively impairs immune function, and that AGE is extremely useful for preventing psychologically-induced damage.R
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Butyrylcholinesterase
Inhibited butyrylcholinesterase activityR
Alzheimer’s
[6]-Gingerol pretreatment protected against Aβ(25-35)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death such as DNA fragmentation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3.R
Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Anxiety
Ginger may bind to and activate 5-HT1A Receptors which is one of the serotonin neurotransmitter receptors. ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) reduces anxiety.R
Depression
Evoked antidepressant-like synergism in ratsR
Exerted synergistic antidepressant actions in miceR
Memory
Showed improvements (accuracy and speed) in word recognition tests and working memory (numeric and spatial) as well as improved choice reaction timesR R
Alzheimer’s
Ginger can inhibit activation of human monocytic THP-1 cells by different pro-inflammatory stimuli and reduce the expression of a wide range of inflammation-related genes in these microglial-like cellsR
Cerebrovascular
Ginger could be valuable for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complication due to platelet aggregation.R
Parkinson’s
The effects of eugenol treatment in this model suggest its possible usefulness for the treatment of Parkinson disease.R
Prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depression in mouse striatum and increased superoxide scavenging activity in serumR
Neuroblastoma
Shogaols protected IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal HUVEC from Abeta-insultR
Protected IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal HUVEC from Abeta-insultR
Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta)
Acetylcholinesterase
Inhibits AcetylcholinesteraseR
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)
Anxiety
May alleviate AnxietyR
Dementia
May improve memory in dementia patientsR
Stress
May protect against the toxic effects of excessive stressR R
Alzheimer’s
This potent antioxidant improves blood flow to the heart and brain and has anti-inflammatory properties that offer protection from Alzheimer’s disease.R
Acetylcholinerase
Inhibitory effect of ursolic acid purified from Origanum majorana L on the acetylcholinesterase.R
Glioblastomas
Ursolic acid Inhibited IL-1β or TNF-α-induced C6 glioma invasion through suppressing the association of ZIP/p62 with PKC-zeta and downregulating MMP-9 expression R
Kokum (Garcinia indica)
Anxiety
Garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica), to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioningR
Parkinson’s
Garcia indica acted as an effective neuroprotective agent for striatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of PD.R
Neurogenesis
Garcinol could promote neurite outgrowth in EGF-responsive neural precursor cells and modulate the ERK pathway in the enhancement of neuronal survival.R
Lemongrass
Anxiety
It is concluded that lemongrass, one of the most popular Brazilian herbal medicines, used for its alleged CNS-depressant effects, is atoxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties. R
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Anxiety
May reduce anxietyR
Depression
May exert antidepressant effects in depression patientsR
Learning
May improve learning abilityR
Memory
May improve memory. The observed memory-enhancing effect may be attributed to a variety of properties (individually or in combination) the plant is reported to possess, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or perhaps procholinergic activity.R
Oregano (Origanum vulgare)
Cerebral Ischemia
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Carvacrol (CAR) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. R
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)
Alzheimer’s
Protected against Abeta-induced memory impairment in mice. These findings suggest that EAG or decursinol may have preventive effect against memory impairment related with Abeta of Alzheimer's disease.R
Cerebral Ischemia
Reduced cerebral infarction and neuronal apoptosis in cellsR
Reduced cerebral infarct area and neurological deficit-score in transient MCAO rats due to Ferulic acidR
Prevented brain ischemia/reperfusion injuryR
Decreased platelet aggregation induced by ADP ex vivo and arteriovenous shunt Thrombosis in vivo in ratsR
Brain tumor
Triggered both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways for apoptosis in vitro, suppressed growth of subcutaneous rat and human brain tumors, reduced the volume of GBM tumors in situ, prolonging survival rateR
Induced growth arrest and apoptosis in human GBM brain tumor cellsR
Angelica sinensis
Alzheimer’s
The results of this study demonstrated that Angelica sinensis (AS) extract possessed the activity to prevent the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta-associated oxidative stress, implying that Angelica sinensis (AS) has a potential role in the prevention of Alzheimer's diseases.R
Brain tumor
Butylidenephthalide Triggered both p53-dependent and independent pathways for apoptosis in vitro, suppressed growth of subcutaneous rat and human brain tumors, reduced the volume of GBM tumors in situ, prolonging survival rateR
Extract Inhibited tumor growth by reducing the level of VEGF and cathepsin B on brain astrocytomasR
Red chili (Capsaicin)
Brain tumor
Induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells SHSY-5YR
Induced apoptosis of glioma cells mediated by TRPV1 vanilloid receptor and requires p38 MAPK activationR
Induced apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cellsR
Induced apoptosis in A172 human glioblastoma cellsR
Induced apoptosis via redox status-dependent regulation of cyclooxygenases in human neuroblastoma cellsR
Neuropathy
Capsaicin (cream applied topically) may alleviate the Pain associated with (diabetic) NeuropathyR
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Alzheimer’s
May help to prevent/treat Alzheimer's Disease (by inhibiting the Acetylcholinesterase enzyme)R
Depression
May alleviate DepressionR
Neurogenesis
May enhance the production of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) (due to the carnosic acid and carnosol content of Rosemary)R
Alzheimer’s
Carnosic acid may be useful in protecting against beta amyloid-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus.R
Memory
High concentration of carnosic acid, which helps improve memoryR
Neurogenesis
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract enhanced the production of NGF in T98G human glioblastoma cells.R
Concentration
Higher concentrations resulting in improved performance with 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), one of rosemary's main chemical components.R
Parkinson’s
Carnosol may have potential as a possible compound for the development of new agents to treat Parkinson's diseaseR
Saffron (Crocus sativus)
Anxiety
Induces anxiolytic-like (anxiety-reducing) benefitsR
Alzheimer’s
Our findings suggest the possible use of C. sativus stigma constituents for inhibition of aggregation and deposition of Abeta in the human brain.R
This phase II study provides preliminary evidence of a possible therapeutic effect of saffron extract in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT138711051556N1).R
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
May reduce OCD through serotonergic (serotonin-neurotransmitter) systemR
Memory
May inhibit the ability of alcohol (ethanol) to impair long-term Memory (due to the crocin content)R
Depression
The data indicate that antidepressant-like properties of aqueous stigma extracts may be due to crocin 1, giving support to the validity of the use of this plant in traditional medicine. All these results suggest that the low polarity parts of C. sativus corms should be considered as a new plant material for curing depression, which merit further studies regarding antidepressive-like activities of chemical compounds isolated from the two fractions and mechanism of action.R
Multiple Sclerosis
Saffron may be a potential treatment for diseases involving neuroinflammation, such as multiple sclerosis.R
Cerebral ischemia
We propose that crocin protects the brain against excessive oxidative stress and constitutes a potential therapeutic candidate in transient global cerebral ischemia.R
Age Related Cognitive Decline
Saffron has promise in preventing or ameliorating some age related cognitive decline causes.R
Excitotoxicity
Saffron and its extracts demonstrate protection against excitotoxicityR
Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Cognitive performance
The results confirm previous observations of the cholinesterase inhibiting properties of S. officinalis, and improved mood and cognitive performance following the administration of single doses to healthy young participants.R
Attention
An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention. These findings extend those of the memory-enhancing effects of Salvia extracts in younger populations and warrant further investigation in larger series, in other populations and with different dosing regimes.R
Memory
May improve Memory. After treatment with sage, participants showed significant memory enhancement at all assessment times throughout the testing days, most especially on the 333 mg testing day.R
Anxiety
Both doses of sage led to improved ratings of mood in the absence of the stressor (that is, in pre-DISS mood scores) postdose, with the lower dose reducing anxiety and the higher dose increasing 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' on the Bond-Lader mood scales..R
Acetylcholinesterase
Prevents acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine.R
Mood
Has long been associated with a calming and spirit-lifting effectR
Neurogenesis
The apigenin content in Sage may stimulate adult neurogenesis—the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain—by promoting a process called neuronal differentiation.R
Alzheimer’s
Rosmarinic acid protected PC12 cells from Abeta-induced neurotoxicity. These data show the neuroprotective effect of sage against Abeta-induced toxicity, which could validate the traditional use of this spice in the treatment of AD. Rosmarinic acid could contribute, at least in part, for sage-induced neuroprotective effect.R
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)
Acetylcholinesterase
S. lavandulifolia has been found to have a selective acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting effectR
Memory
Administration of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) has been reported to be effective in improving the speed of memory and mood.R R
Alzheimer’s
Spanish sage (S. lavandulaefolia) is effective in the management of mild to moderate ADR
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)
Dopamine
Salvia miltiorrhiza may stimulate dopamine releaseR
Cerebrovascular
Cerebrovascular protective effect of Salvianolic acid has been found to be due to prevention of apoptosis.R
Cerebral ischemia
In clinical use for ischemic strokeR
Alzheimer’s
Tanshinone IIA has been identified as a natural monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor and may be a good candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's diseaseR
Cerebral blood flow
Danshen may reduce or prolong the development of atherosclerosis and may have anti-hypertensive and anti-platelet aggregation effects, which prevent cerebral infarction.R
Cerebral ischemia
The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease and cerebral ischemiaR
Sesame seed
Cerebral Ischemia
Many studies have reported dietary sesame oil (SO) as an effective antioxidant. In the present study the neuroprotective effect of dietary SO was evaluated against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia injury in rats. The results obtained suggest protective effect of SO against cerebral ischemia in rat brain through their antioxidant properties. R
Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)
Epilepsy
Exerted dose- and time-dependent antiseizure activity in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole models of experimental seizuresR
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Increases DHA
Supplementing the diet with thyme has been shown to increase the amount of DHA in the brainR
Cerebral Ischemia
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Carvacrol (CAR) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
Serotonin
May inhibit Stress-induced reductions in the number of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Hippocampus.R
Cerebral ischemia
In cultured astrocytes, curcumin significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO(x) (Nitrites/nitrates contents) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha)). Furthermore, curcumin prevented ONOO(-) donor SIN-1-induced cerebral capillaries endothelial cells damage. We concluded that curcumin ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by preventing ONOO(-) mediated blood-brain barrier damage.R
Neurogenesis
Administration of curcumin to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in the number of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus, indicating that curcumin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings suggest that curcumin can stimulate developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and a biological activity that may enhance neural plasticity and repair.R
Depression
May help to prevent and treat depression. Although the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of curcumin is not fully understood, it is hypothesized to act through inhibiting the monoamine oxidase enzyme and modulating the release of serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, evidences have shown that curcumin enhances neurogenesis, notably in the frontal cortex and hippocampal regions of the brain. The use of curcumin in clinics for the treatment of major depression is limited due to its poor gastrointestinal absorption.R
Acted by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase and modulated the release of serotonin and dopamine from the brainR
Stress
May inhibit Stress-induced damage in the Hippocampus of the Brain. These results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of curcumin in chronically stressed animals, and by extension humans, may be related to their modulating effects on the HPA axis and neurotrophin factor expressions.R
Multiple Sclerosis
May inhibit the further progression of Multiple SclerosisR
Inhibited differentiation and development of Th17 cellsR
Decreased TLR-4 and -9 expression in CD-4 and -8(+) T cellsR
Inhibited IL-12 production and activated STAT4. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit an inhibitory effect on the production of inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes and has inhibited the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in association with a decrease in interleukin 12 (IL-12) production and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) activation.R
Parkinson’s
Curcumin reduces alpha-synuclein induced cytotoxicity in Parkinson's disease cell model.R
Reduced synuclein toxicity, intracellular ROS, and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cellsR
Alzheimer’s
Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Inhibited Abeta insult. Although the mechanism by which Cur and RA inhibit fAbeta formation from Abeta and destabilize preformed fAbeta in vitro remains unclear, they could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.R
When fed to aged Tg2576 mice with advanced amyloid accumulation, curcumin labeled plaques and reduced amyloid levels and plaque burden. Hence, curcumin directly binds small beta-amyloid species to block aggregation and fibril formation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that low dose curcumin effectively disaggregates Abeta as well as prevents fibril and oligomer formation, supporting the rationale for curcumin use in clinical trials preventing or treating AD.R
Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protect cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzheimer's disease.R
systemic treatment of mice with curcumin for 7 days clears and reduces existing plaques, as monitored with longitudinal imaging, suggesting a potent disaggregation effect. Curcumin also led to a limited, but significant reversal of structural changes in dystrophic dendrites, including abnormal curvature and dystrophy size. Together, these data suggest that curcumin reverses existing amyloid pathology and associated neurotoxicity in a mouse model of AD. This approach could lead to more effective clinical therapies for the prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and neurotoxicity associated with AD.R
Protected Sprague–Dawley rats from Abeta-induced damageR
Inhibited neuroglial cell proliferation. It has been suggested that CUR's anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions may be useful in the prevention-treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. Given neuroglial involvement in these diseases, and CUR's observed actions on neuroglia, the data presented here may provide further explanations of CUR's preventative-therapeutic role in these diseases. R
Inhibited Abeta-induced cytochemokine gene expression and CCR5-mediated chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes by modulating EGR-1R
Blocked Abeta aggregation. R
Inhibited aggregation of α-synuclein Greater than 32% decrease in mutant alpha-synuclein aggregation was observed within 48 h subsequent to curcumin addition. Our data suggest that curcumin inhibits AS oligomerization into higher molecular weight aggregates and therefore should be further explored as a potential therapeutic compound for PD and related disorders.. R
Epilepsy
Ameliorated seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in pentylenetetrazole-treated ratsR
Brain tumor
Inhibited MB, NB, and pituitary folliculostellate cells and exerted antitumor effectR
Curcumin and resveratrol induce apoptosis and nuclear translocation and activation of p53 in human neuroblastoma.R
Induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner and upregulated ING4 expression in human gliomaR
Sensitized malignant glioma cells to TRAIL/Apo2L-mediated apoptosis. Inhibited MMP gene expression in human astroglioma cellsR
Curcumin is a potent broad spectrum inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in human astroglioma cells.R
Inhibited cell proliferation, blocked clonogenicity, downregulated bcl-2 and bcl-xL, leading to caspase-mediated cell death, and blocked migration of MB cellsR
Suppressed antiapoptotic signals and activated cysteine proteases for apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma U87MG cellsR
Suppressed growth and chemoresistance of human glioblastoma cells via AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factorsR
Induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells via inhibition of NF-κBR
Inhibited NF-κB-mediated radioprotection and modulated apoptosis related genes in human neuroblastoma cellsR
Acted as antitumorigenic and hormone-suppressive effect in murine and human pituitary tumor cells in vitro and in vivoR
Induced Bcl-2-mediated G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human glioma U87 cells via DemethoxycurcuminR
Cerebral ischemic
Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on focal cerebral ischemic rats by preventing blood-brain barrier damageR
Curcumin improves outcomes and attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury via antiapoptotic mechanisms in ratsR
Curcuma oil: reduces early accumulation of oxidative product and is anti-apoptogenic in transient focal ischemia in rat brain.R
Intracellular calcium levels were decreased following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats. Histologically, a reduction in the infarct area from 33% to 24% was observed in MCAO rats treated with curcumin.R
Results suggest the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in cerebral ischemia and is mediated through its antioxidant activity.R
West African Pepper (Piper guineense)
Neuroprotective
Beta-caryophyllene was shown to be selective agonist of cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) and to exert significant neuroprotective effects.R
Anxiolytic
results suggest that inhalation of P. guineense essential oil might induce a mild tranquilizing effect.R
Anticonvulsant
Results indicate that the extract of P. guineense has prolonged anticonvulsant activity at doses which do not cause significant CNS depression.R

Table D – Detailed Analysis of Spices (By Condition)

The following Table lists those neurological conditions and the corresponding spices.*  Each condition is listed with the corresponding spice, an abstract of the health effect and a reference to a scientific study or research article.

Table D – Detailed Analysis of Spices (By Condition)

ConditionSpiceHealth EffectReference
Acetylcholinesterase
BasilInhibited acetylcholinesteraseR
Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum)Inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitroR
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)The AChE inhibitory activity of a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Murraya koenigiiR
Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta)Inhibits AcetylcholinesteraseR
Sage (Salvia officinalis)Prevents acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine.R
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)S. lavandulifolia has been found to have a selective acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting effectR
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)Inhibitory effect of ursolic acid purified from Origanum majorana L on the acetylcholinesterase.R
Alzheimer’s
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Improve cognitive function against cognitive deficit condition including in Alzheimer's disease condition (from piperieR R
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)May help to prevent/treat Alzheimer's Disease (by inhibiting tau aggregation and filament formation)R
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)Blocked Abeta aggregationR
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)A body of evidence suggests that eugenol can be used as a drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).R
Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare)F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.R
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)May be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's type of amnesiaR
Garlic (Allium sativum)Garlic extract exhibits antiamyloidogenic activity on amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis: relevance to Alzheimer's disease. The findings suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE in helping prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and lowering the risk of dementia and AD.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)This review encompasses multiple health effects of garlic and its constituents with reference to neuroprotection. Possible potential of dietary garlic as an alternative herbal pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's disease is discussed.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Feeding of aged garlic extract prevented deterioration of hippocampal based memory tasks in these mice, suggesting that aged garlic extract has a potential for preventing AD progression.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), one of the organosulfur compounds found in aged garlic extract, has been shown to possess various biological effects including neurotrophic activity. These results suggest that SAC could protect against the neuronal cell death that is triggered by ER dysfunction in the hippocampus, and that it has no effect on neuronal cell death that is dependent upon the caspase-3 mediated pathway.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)In neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), apoptosis results in the loss of valuable neurons. A key mechanism in apoptosis is the activation of caspase-3. Caspase-3 activity first becomes detectable early in apoptosis, continues to increase as cells undergo apoptosis, and rapidly declines in late stages of apoptosis. As a caspase-3 inhibitor, AGE may be effective in reducing apoptotic death of neurons since caspase inhibitors have been shown to inhibit neuronal cell death. We propose a scheme for the ameliorative effect of AGE on deleterious effects of beta-amyloid and possibly uncontrolled caspase-3 activity.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Dietary garlic increased sAPPalpha by 25% and decreased Abeta40 and Abeta42 by 31% and 32%, respectively, compared to untreated Tgs. These results suggest a simple and non-invasive dietary therapy for reducing risk of AD in probable cases and reducing preexisting amyloid burden in clinically diagnosed AD cases.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) and S-allyl cysteine (SAC) on Abeta(25-35)-induced apoptosis and ROS generation in a rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. Our data suggest that ROS may be involved in Ab-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. They further suggest that garlic compounds can reduce apoptosis, possibly by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defenses.. R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Reduced Abeta-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Our data suggest that ROS may be involved in Ab-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. They further suggest that garlic compounds can reduce apoptosis, possibly by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defenses.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Inhibited Abeta fibrillation and destabilized Abeta fibrilsR
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Inhibited Abeta fibrillogenesis in human brain. The findings suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Exerted antiamyloidogenic effects. If validated pre-clinically, dietary intervention with herbal alternative such as AGE having pleiotropic useful properties and least adverse effects may provide greater therapeutic benefit over a single-ingredient synthetic pharmaceutical drug having serious side effects in treating Alzheimer's disease.R
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)[6]-Gingerol pretreatment protected against Aβ(25-35)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death such as DNA fragmentation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3.R
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Ginger can inhibit activation of human monocytic THP-1 cells by different pro-inflammatory stimuli and reduce the expression of a wide range of inflammation-related genes in these microglial-like cellsR
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)Has anti-apoptotic potential to diminish β-amyloid peptide 1-40 sequence (Aβ1-40)-induced neuronal cell death in primary cultured cerebellar granule neuronsR
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)This potent antioxidant improves blood flow to the heart and brain and has anti-inflammatory properties that offer protection from Alzheimer’s disease.R
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Protected against Abeta-induced memory impairment in mice. These findings suggest that EAG or decursinol may have preventive effect against memory impairment related with Abeta of Alzheimer's disease.R
Angelica sinensisThe results of this study demonstrated that Angelica sinensis (AS) extract possessed the activity to prevent the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta-associated oxidative stress, implying that Angelica sinensis (AS) has a potential role in the prevention of Alzheimer's diseases.R
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)May help to prevent/treat Alzheimer's Disease (by inhibiting the Acetylcholinesterase enzyme)R
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)Carnosic acid may be useful in protecting against beta amyloid-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus.R
Saffron (Crocus sativus)Our findings suggest the possible use of C. sativus stigma constituents for inhibition of aggregation and deposition of Abeta in the human brain.R
Saffron (Crocus sativus)This phase II study provides preliminary evidence of a possible therapeutic effect of saffron extract in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT138711051556N1).R
Sage (Salvia officinalis)Rosmarinic acid protected PC12 cells from Abeta-induced neurotoxicity. These data show the neuroprotective effect of sage against Abeta-induced toxicity, which could validate the traditional use of this spice in the treatment of AD. Rosmarinic acid could contribute, at least in part, for sage-induced neuroprotective effect.R
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)Spanish sage (S. lavandulaefolia) is effective in the management of mild to moderate ADR
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)Tanshinone IIA has been identified as a natural monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor and may be a good candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's diseaseR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited Abeta insult. Although the mechanism by which Cur and RA inhibit fAbeta formation from Abeta and destabilize preformed fAbeta in vitro remains unclear, they could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)When fed to aged Tg2576 mice with advanced amyloid accumulation, curcumin labeled plaques and reduced amyloid levels and plaque burden. Hence, curcumin directly binds small beta-amyloid species to block aggregation and fibril formation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that low dose curcumin effectively disaggregates Abeta as well as prevents fibril and oligomer formation, supporting the rationale for curcumin use in clinical trials preventing or treating AD.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)systemic treatment of mice with curcumin for 7 days clears and reduces existing plaques, as monitored with longitudinal imaging, suggesting a potent disaggregation effect. Curcumin also led to a limited, but significant reversal of structural changes in dystrophic dendrites, including abnormal curvature and dystrophy size. Together, these data suggest that curcumin reverses existing amyloid pathology and associated neurotoxicity in a mouse model of AD. This approach could lead to more effective clinical therapies for the prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and neurotoxicity associated with AD.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Protected Sprague–Dawley rats from Abeta-induced damageR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited neuroglial cell proliferation. It has been suggested that CUR's anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions may be useful in the prevention-treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. Given neuroglial involvement in these diseases, and CUR's observed actions on neuroglia, the data presented here may provide further explanations of CUR's preventative-therapeutic role in these diseases. R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited Abeta-induced cytochemokine gene expression and CCR5-mediated chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes by modulating EGR-1R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Blocked Abeta aggregationR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protect cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzheimer's disease.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Blocked Abeta aggregation.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited aggregation of α-synuclein Greater than 32% decrease in mutant alpha-synuclein aggregation was observed within 48 h subsequent to curcumin addition. Our data suggest that curcumin inhibits AS oligomerization into higher molecular weight aggregates and therefore should be further explored as a potential therapeutic compound for PD and related disorders..R
Age Related Cognitive Decline
Saffron (Crocus sativus)Saffron has promise in preventing or ameliorating some age related cognitive decline causes.R
Anticonvulsant
West African Pepper (Piper guineense)Results indicate that the extract of P. guineense has prolonged anticonvulsant activity at doses which do not cause significant CNS depression.R
Anxiety
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)May reduce AnxietyR
Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum)May alleviate anxietyR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Ginger may bind to and activate 5-HT1A Receptors which is one of the serotonin neurotransmitter receptors. ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) reduces anxiety.R
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)May alleviate AnxietyR
Kokum (Garcinia indica)Garcinol, a naturally-occurring histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor derived from the rind of the fruit of the Kokum tree (Garcina indica), to disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioningR
LemongrassIt is concluded that lemongrass, one of the most popular Brazilian herbal medicines, used for its alleged CNS-depressant effects, is atoxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties. R
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)May reduce anxietyR
Saffron (Crocus sativus)Induces anxiolytic-like (anxiety-reducing) benefitsR
Sage (Salvia officinalis)Both doses of sage led to improved ratings of mood in the absence of the stressor (that is, in pre-DISS mood scores) postdose, with the lower dose reducing anxiety and the higher dose increasing 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' on the Bond-Lader mood scales..R
West African Pepper (Piper guineense)results suggest that inhalation of P. guineense essential oil might induce a mild tranquilizing effect.R
Attention
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)Improve attention processingR
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)May improve attention and cognitionR
Sage (Salvia officinalis)An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention. These findings extend those of the memory-enhancing effects of Salvia extracts in younger populations and warrant further investigation in larger series, in other populations and with different dosing regimes.R
Brain Tumor
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)Anti-tumor properties of the antioxidant 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a ginger-derived natural product extract from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galanga, on brain tumors.R
BasilInhibited IL-1β or TNF-α-induced C6 glioma invasion through suppressing the association of ZIP/p62 with PKC-zeta and downregulating MMP-9 expression via Ursolic acidR
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Triggered both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways for apoptosis in vitro, suppressed growth of subcutaneous rat and human brain tumors, reduced the volume of GBM tumors in situ, prolonging survival rateR
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Induced growth arrest and apoptosis in human GBM brain tumor cellsR
Angelica sinensisButylidenephthalide Triggered both p53-dependent and independent pathways for apoptosis in vitro, suppressed growth of subcutaneous rat and human brain tumors, reduced the volume of GBM tumors in situ, prolonging survival rateR
Angelica sinensisExtract Inhibited tumor growth by reducing the level of VEGF and cathepsin B on brain astrocytomasR
Red chili (Capsaicin)Induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells SHSY-5YR
Red chili (Capsaicin)Induced apoptosis of glioma cells mediated by TRPV1 vanilloid receptor and requires p38 MAPK activationR
Red chili (Capsaicin)Induced apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cellsR
Red chili (Capsaicin)Induced apoptosis in A172 human glioblastoma cellsR
Red chili (Capsaicin)Induced apoptosis via redox status-dependent regulation of cyclooxygenases in human neuroblastoma cellsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited cell proliferation, blocked clonogenicity, downregulated bcl-2 and bcl-xL, leading to caspase-mediated cell death, and blocked migration of MB cellsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Suppressed antiapoptotic signals and activated cysteine proteases for apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma U87MG cellsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Suppressed growth and chemoresistance of human glioblastoma cells via AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factorsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells via inhibition of NF-κBR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited NF-κB-mediated radioprotection and modulated apoptosis related genes in human neuroblastoma cellsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Acted as antitumorigenic and hormone-suppressive effect in murine and human pituitary tumor cells in vitro and in vivoR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Induced Bcl-2-mediated G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human glioma U87 cells via DemethoxycurcuminR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Curcumin and resveratrol induce apoptosis and nuclear translocation and activation of p53 in human neuroblastoma.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner and upregulated ING4 expression in human gliomaR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Sensitized malignant glioma cells to TRAIL/Apo2L-mediated apoptosisR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Curcumin is a potent broad spectrum inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in human astroglioma cells.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited MB, NB, and pituitary folliculostellate cells and exerted antitumor effectR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Inhibited butyrylcholinesterase activityR
Cerebral Ischemia
Fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare)The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. R
Galangal (Alpinia galanga)Pinocembrin, an active ingedient in alpinia galanga, may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce cerebral ischemiaR
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)Inhibited kainic acid-triggered neuronal cell death and decreased infarct volume in the transient MCAO model of strokesR
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)In clinical use for ischemic strokeR
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)May have protective effects in cerebral ischemiaR
Oregano (Origanum vulgare)In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Carvacrol (CAR) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. R
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Reduced cerebral infarction and neuronal apoptosis in cellsR
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Reduced cerebral infarct area and neurological deficit-score in transient MCAO rats due to Ferulic acidR
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Prevented brain ischemia/reperfusion injuryR
Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)Decreased platelet aggregation induced by ADP ex vivo and arteriovenous shunt Thrombosis in vivo in ratsR
Saffron (Crocus sativus)We propose that crocin protects the brain against excessive oxidative stress and constitutes a potential therapeutic candidate in transient global cerebral ischemia.R
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease and cerebral ischemiaR
Sesame SeedMany studies have reported dietary sesame oil (SO) as an effective antioxidant. In the present study the neuroprotective effect of dietary SO was evaluated against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia injury in rats. The results obtained suggest protective effect of SO against cerebral ischemia in rat brain through their antioxidant properties. R
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Carvacrol (CAR) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)In cultured astrocytes, curcumin significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO(x) (Nitrites/nitrates contents) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha)). Furthermore, curcumin prevented ONOO(-) donor SIN-1-induced cerebral capillaries endothelial cells damage. We concluded that curcumin ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by preventing ONOO(-) mediated blood-brain barrier damage.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on focal cerebral ischemic rats by preventing blood-brain barrier damageR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Curcumin improves outcomes and attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury via antiapoptotic mechanisms in ratsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Curcuma oil: reduces early accumulation of oxidative product and is anti-apoptogenic in transient focal ischemia in rat brain.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Intracellular calcium levels were decreased following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats. Histologically, a reduction in the infarct area from 33% to 24% was observed in MCAO rats treated with curcumin.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Results suggest the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in cerebral ischemia and is mediated through its antioxidant activity.R
Cerebrovascular
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Ginger could be valuable for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complication due to platelet aggregation.R
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)Cerebrovascular protective effect of Salvianolic acid has been found to be due to prevention of apoptosis.R
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)Danshen may reduce or prolong the development of atherosclerosis and may have anti-hypertensive and anti-platelet aggregation effects, which prevent cerebral infarction.R
Cognitive performance
Sage (Salvia officinalis)The results confirm previous observations of the cholinesterase inhibiting properties of S. officinalis, and improved mood and cognitive performance following the administration of single doses to healthy young participants.R
Concentration
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)Higher concentrations resulting in improved performance with 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), one of rosemary's main chemical components.R
Dementia
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)May enhance of cognitive processing in dementia patientsR
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)Alkaloidal extract from M. koenigii leaves (MKA) to be a useful remedy in the management of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.R
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)May improve memory in dementia patientsR
Depression
Allspice (Pimenta dioica)Induced BDNF and MT-III in the hippocampus of mice R
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Antidepressant-like effect of piperine, which may be closely related to the elevation of hippocampal BDNF level.R R
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Inhibited the growth of cultured neurons from embryonic rat brainR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Showed antidepressant activity, modulated serotonergic systemR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Protected mice from CMS, upregulated BDNFR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Eugenol possesses an antidepressant-like activity.R
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Showed antidepressant-like activity and induced expression of MT-III in the hippocampusR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Evoked antidepressant-like synergism in ratsR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Exerted synergistic antidepressant actions in miceR
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)May exert antidepressant effects in depression patientsR
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)May alleviate DepressionR
Saffron (Crocus sativus)The data indicate that antidepressant-like properties of aqueous stigma extracts may be due to crocin 1, giving support to the validity of the use of this plant in traditional medicine. All these results suggest that the low polarity parts of C. sativus corms should be considered as a new plant material for curing depression, which merit further studies regarding antidepressive-like activities of chemical compounds isolated from the two fractions and mechanism of action.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)May help to prevent and treat depression. Although the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of curcumin is not fully understood, it is hypothesized to act through inhibiting the monoamine oxidase enzyme and modulating the release of serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, evidences have shown that curcumin enhances neurogenesis, notably in the frontal cortex and hippocampal regions of the brain. The use of curcumin in clinics for the treatment of major depression is limited due to its poor gastrointestinal absorption.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Acted by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase and modulated the release of serotonin and dopamine from the brainR
Dopamine
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)Salvia miltiorrhiza may stimulate dopamine releaseR
Epilepsy
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)May be useful for the treatment of EpilepsyR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Prolonged anticonvulsant activity against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice and against seizures induced in T.O. mice by NMDLAR
Celery Seed (Apium graveolens)Reduced seizure phenotype in a Drosophila model of epilepsyR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Suppressed epileptiform field potentials and spreading depression in rat neocortical and hippocampal tissuesR
Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)Exerted dose- and time-dependent antiseizure activity in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole models of experimental seizuresR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Ameliorated seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in pentylenetetrazole-treated ratsR
Excitotoxicity
Saffron (Crocus sativus)Saffron and its extracts demonstrate protection against excitotoxicityR
Glioblastoma
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)Selectively inhibits the clonogenicity of glioblastoma cells as compared to normal human astrocytesR
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)Inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cellsR
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)Bound to TrkA, prevented glutamate-induced neuronal cell death, induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cellsR
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)Inhibited the growth of orthotopic glioma, induced apoptosisR
Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)Inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cellsR
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)Ursolic acid Inhibited IL-1β or TNF-α-induced C6 glioma invasion through suppressing the association of ZIP/p62 with PKC-zeta and downregulating MMP-9 expressionR
Increases DHA
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)Supplementing the diet with thyme has been shown to increase the amount of DHA in the brainR
Inhibits MAO-A
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Eugenol inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and may restore monoamines that are decreased in the brain of patients with depression.R
Learning
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)May improve learning abilityR
Memory
Asafoetida (Ferula foetida (also known as Ferula asafoetida))Asafetida may improve Memory (due to the Azerin content of Asafetida)R
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)Associated with improved memory formationR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Piperine, a main active alkaloid in fruit of Piper nigrum, improves memory performanceR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Improved memory impairment and neurodegenerationR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Improved memory impairment and neurodegenerationR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Clove oil can reverse the short-term and long-term memory deficits induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i. p.) and this effect can, to some extent, be attributed to decreased oxidative stress.R R
Cumin Seed (Cuminum cyminum)Study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extractR
Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)Murraya koenigii (curry leaf extract) has been shown to improve memory in animal models, perhaps by reducing cholinesterase activityR R
Garlic (Allium sativum)Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)We first investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the longevity and learning performances in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM). The degree of shrinkage in the frontal cerebrum was 2–9% in the SAMP10. Chronic ingestion of AGE prevented this atrophy and kept the brain size at the control level. These results suggest that AGE has an antiaging effect on the SAM.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Aged garlic extract (AGE) produces neurotrophic effects on cultured fetal rat hippocampal neurons. These studies examined the molecular events triggered by AGE that might account for a suppression of neuronal cell death. Further, our results suggest that α2MRP may function at the initial step of the molecular events triggered by AGE and play an important role in the survival of hippocampal neurons.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)The effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on longevity and learning and memory performances were studied in the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM). The beneficial effects of AGE were observed in a memory retention process in the step-down test and in an acquisition stage in lever-press test in SAM R1. These results suggest the possibility that AGE might be useful for treating physiological aging and age-related memory deficits in humans.R
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)Treatment with AGE in SAMP10 prevented the decrease in brain weight and the atrophic changes in frontal brain at 12 months of age. These results raise the possibility that AGE prevents physiological ageing and may be beneficial for age-related cognitive disorders in humans.R
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Showed improvements (accuracy and speed) in word recognition tests and working memory (numeric and spatial) as well as improved choice reaction timesR R
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)May improve memory. The observed memory-enhancing effect may be attributed to a variety of properties (individually or in combination) the plant is reported to possess, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or perhaps procholinergic activity.R
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)High concentration of carnosic acid, which helps improve memoryR
Saffron (Crocus sativus)May inhibit the ability of alcohol (ethanol) to impair long-term Memory (due to the crocin content)R
Sage (Salvia officinalis)May improve Memory. After treatment with sage, participants showed significant memory enhancement at all assessment times throughout the testing days, most especially on the 333 mg testing day.R
Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)Administration of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) has been reported to be effective in improving the speed of memory and mood.R R
Mood
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)Elevation of mood state with supplementationR
Sage (Salvia officinalis)Has long been associated with a calming and spirit-lifting effectR
Multiple Sclerosis
Saffron (Crocus sativus)Saffron may be a potential treatment for diseases involving neuroinflammation, such as multiple sclerosis.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)May inhibit the further progression of Multiple SclerosisR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited differentiation and development of Th17 cellsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Decreased TLR-4 and -9 expression in CD-4 and -8(+) T cellsR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Inhibited IL-12 production and activated STAT4. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit an inhibitory effect on the production of inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes and has inhibited the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in association with a decrease in interleukin 12 (IL-12) production and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) activation.R
Neuroblastoma
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Shogaols protected IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal HUVEC from Abeta-insultR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Protected IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal HUVEC from Abeta-insultR
Neurogenesis
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Piperine also demonstrated the neurotrophic effect in hippocampusR
Black pepper (piper Nigrum)Upregulated progenitor cell proliferation of hippocampus and an elevation of BDNF levelR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Eugenol, like other antidepressants, increases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in the hippocampus, which is necessary for an antidepressant to exhibit its activity.R
Kokum (Garcinia indica)Garcinol could promote neurite outgrowth in EGF-responsive neural precursor cells and modulate the ERK pathway in the enhancement of neuronal survival.R
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)May enhance the production of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) (due to the carnosic acid and carnosol content of Rosemary)R
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract enhanced the production of NGF in T98G human glioblastoma cells.R
Sage (Salvia officinalis)The apigenin content in Sage may stimulate adult neurogenesis—the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain—by promoting a process called neuronal differentiation.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Administration of curcumin to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in the number of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus, indicating that curcumin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings suggest that curcumin can stimulate developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and a biological activity that may enhance neural plasticity and repair.R
Neuropathy
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)May help to prevent/treat (diabetic) NeuropathyR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Alleviated neuropathic painR
Red chili (Capsaicin)Capsaicin (cream applied topically) may alleviate the Pain associated with (diabetic) NeuropathyR
Neuroprotective
West African Pepper (Piper guineense)Beta-caryophyllene was shown to be selective agonist of cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) and to exert significant neuroprotective effects.R
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Saffron (Crocus sativus)May reduce OCD through serotonergic (serotonin-neurotransmitter) systemR
Parkinson’s
Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)Protects against α-synuclein (αSN)-induced synaptic toxicity in rat hippocampal and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronsR R
True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum) (old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum)Used to halt progression of Parkinson's disease. Oral treatment of MPTP-intoxicated mice with cinnamon powder and NaB reduced the expression of iNOS and protected Parkin/DJ-1 in the nigra. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions by cinnamon in MPTP-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that cinnamon may be beneficial for PD patients. R
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Eugenol protected mice from 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s diseaseR
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)Protected mice from 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s diseaseR
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)The effects of eugenol treatment in this model suggest its possible usefulness for the treatment of Parkinson disease.R
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depression in mouse striatum and increased superoxide scavenging activity in serumR
Kokum (Garcinia indica)Garcia indica acted as an effective neuroprotective agent for striatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of PD.R
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)Carnosol may have potential as a possible compound for the development of new agents to treat Parkinson's diseaseR
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Curcumin reduces alpha-synuclein induced cytotoxicity in Parkinson's disease cell model.R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)Reduced synuclein toxicity, intracellular ROS, and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cellsR
Serotonin
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)May inhibit Stress-induced reductions in the number of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Hippocampus.R
Stress
Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)We determined the effect of Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) on damage caused to immune function by a psychological stress using a communication box. These results indicate that psychological stress qualitatively and quantitatively impairs immune function, and that AGE is extremely useful for preventing psychologically-induced damage.R
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)May protect against the toxic effects of excessive stressR R
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)May inhibit Stress-induced damage in the Hippocampus of the Brain. These results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of curcumin in chronically stressed animals, and by extension humans, may be related to their modulating effects on the HPA axis and neurotrophin factor expressions.R


Resources

Allspice (Pimenta dioica)

Asafoetida

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum)

Black Cumin Seed (Nigella Sativa)

Black pepper (piper Nigrum)

Celery Seed (Apium graveolens)

True Cinnamon (Ceylon Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum verum)

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)

Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum)

Cumin Seed (Cuminum cyminum)

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)

  • Curry leaves can also be purchased fresh or dried at an Indian grocery or market

Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare)

Galangal (Alpinia galanga)

Gamboge (Garcinia gummi-gutta)

Garlic (Allium sativum)

Aged Garlic Extract (Allium sativum) 

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta)

Kokum (Garcinia indica)

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus)

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) 

Oregano (Origanum vulgare)

Purple Parsnip (Angelica gigas)

Dong quai  (Angelica sinensis)

Red chili (Capsaicin)

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Saffron (Crocus sativus)

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulifolia)

Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza)

Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum)

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

Tumeric (Curcuma longa)

West African Pepper (Piper guineense)

  • Only source in the U.S. went out of business.  Looking for reliable source.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Any products referred to in this article are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your treating doctor.


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Galangal (Alpinia galanga): Anti-Cancer Potential and More

Alpinia galanga, known as Galangal, is a plant in the ginger family and used in Indonesia and Thailand as a spice in the cuisines of these countries.

There are four varieites of galangal, all in the Zingiberaceae (ginger family):

  • Alpinia galanga or greater galangal
  • Alpinia officinarum or lesser galangal
  • Boesenbergia rotunda, called Chinese ginger or fingerroot
  • Kaempferia galanga, called kencur, aromatic ginger or sand ginger

Galangal resembles ginger and has a similar taste as ginger, but stronger.  The most commonly used and consumed Galangal is Alpinia galanga and the one variety that has been the subject of scientific research (See Table below).

There are a number of active compounds and essential oils in Galangal.  The most studied compound in Galangal is 1′-S-1′-acetoxyeugenol acetate.  1′-S-1′-acetoxyeugenol acetate has been shown to have potent anti-cancer capabilities and is a potential source of healthy food for tumor prevention.

The Table below lists the researched compounds in Galangal:

Galangal Active Compounds

Galangal 
CategoryCompound
Essential Oils
1,8 cineol
α-pinene
eugenol
camphor
methyl cinnamate
sesqui­terpenes
Other Compounds
1'-S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate
1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate
Acetoxychavicol Acetate
Trans-P-Coumaryl Diacetate
Coniferyl Diacetate
1’-Hydroxychavicol Acetate
1’-Hydroxychavicol
p-Hydroxy-Trans-Cinnamaldehyde
p-Methoxy-Trans-Cinnamylalcohol
3,4-Dimethoxy-Trans-Cinnamylalcohol
2-propenal, 3-[4-(acetyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]
isocoronarin D (IV) and caryolane-1, 9β-diol

The Table below lists the recognized and researched studies on the health benefits of Galangal:

Galangal Health Benefits

Galangal  
ConditionEffect and BenefitReferences
Tumor prevention
Five compounds, 1'-S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (I), 1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (II), 2-propenal, 3-[4-(acetyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl] (III), isocoronarin D (IV) and caryolane-1, 9β-diol (V), were obtained from Alpinia galangal. Compounds I, II, IV and V were the main active ingredients for inducing death of the tested cancer cells, and their IC50 values ranged from 60 to 90 μg mL(-1), indicating that these compounds possessed a wide anti-cancer capability. Therefore, A. galangal seeds could be a potential source of healthy food for tumor prevention.1
Neuroblastoma
Diarylheptanoids derived from A. officinarum have marked activity against neuroblastoma cells, acting through multiple mechanisms. Our results suggest that the two compounds studied here may be useful for the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma.2 3
Myeloma cells
1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) has an inhibitory effect on NF-kappaB, and induces the apoptosis of myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo. ACA, therefore, provides a new biologically based therapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma patients as a novel NF-kappaB inhibitor.4
Apoptosis of cancer cells
c 1'-(S)-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) has cytotoxic and apoptotic properties on five human tumour cell lines5
Oral cancers
results suggest that ACA inhibits the growth of oral SCC and further potentiates the effect of standard CDDP treatment by modulation of proinflammatory microenvironment6
Skin tumor promotion
1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) and FA showed promising inhibitory effects against skin tumorigenesis in K5.Stat3C mice. ACA also suppressed phospho-p65 NF-κB activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for its action7
Prostate cancer
findings suggest that 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) targets the Src-FAK-Rho GTPase pathway, leading to the suppression of prostate tumor angiogenesis and growth8
Myeloid leukemia
ACA induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemic cells via independent dual pathways. In addition, ACA has potential as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of myeloid leukemia9
Glioblastomas
In the present study, 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a naturally derived antioxidant that inhibits xanthine oxidase, was evaluated for its role as an anti-tumorigenic agent in glioblastomas. Results demonstrate that, despite enhanced expression of compensatory signaling molecules that contribute to tumor cell survival, ACA is an effective pro-apoptotic inducing agent in glioblastomas10
Breast cancer
In tumor metastasis model, ACA potently inhibited the human breast cancer cell-induced osteolysis, and had little apparent in vivo toxicity at the test concentrations. ACA is a novel drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor metastasis through interference with the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway11
Lung cancer
1′-acetoxychavicol acetate found effective against the COR L23 lung cancer cell line12
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically induced apoptotic cell death via an increase in intracellular ROS and phosphorylation of AMPK. Our findings may provide new insight into the development of novel combination therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma.13
Asthma
1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) inhibited expression of the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and Th1 cytokines IL-12α and interferon-γ. Because asthmatic reactions are mediated by diverse immune and inflammatory pathways, ACA shows promise as an antiasthmatic drug candidate14
Alzheimer’s
May be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's type of dementia15
Amyloid β induced toxicity
1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) exhibited neuroprotective effect against amyloid β-protein fragment 25–35 induced neurotoxicity via upregulation of proteasome activity16
Antimicrobial
The observed antibacterial, anticandidal and antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and compounds obtained from the rhizome confirm the traditional use of Alpinia cochigera rhizome in the treatment of skin infection.17
Diabetes mellitus
In the present study, the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga demonstrated significant nephro-protective activities in the tested models. The alcoholic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga holds promise for the development of a standardized phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus and kidney disease treatment.18
Antioxidant
Ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga at the dose of 400 mg/kg b.wt restored the GSH when compared to untreated control. The GSH was found to be increased when compared to untreated control and with doses. SOD was also found to increase with the increase in dosage when compared t the diabetic control group.19
Arthritis
Galangal may be useful for suppressing inflammation due to arthritis20
Ulcers
Galangal completely inhibited stomach ulcers in experimental animals, better than three anti-ulcer drugs.21
Cerebral Ischemia
Pinocembrin, an active ingedient in alpinia galanga, may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce cerebral ischemia22
Anti-obesity activities
Results show that ACA exerts anti-obesity activities both in vitro and in vivo and suggests that ACA may have a novel preventive activity against obesity and possibly other metabolic diseases23


Resources:

Savory Spice Shop – Galangal


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Mitophagy: Maintaining the integrity of the Cell by Elimination of Dysfunctional Mitochondria

A human cell may contain from 2 to 2,500 mitochondria, depending on tissue type, antioxidant status, and other factors.   The functional mitochondria in the cell are the active mitochondria and the more functional mitochondria, the stronger is the health of the cell.

A biological theory states that mitochondrial number and function determine human longevity.   It is proposed that age-related declines in mitochondrial content and function not only affect physical function, but also play a major role in regulation of life span. Regular aerobic exercise and prevention of adiposity by healthy diet may increase healthy life expectancy and prolong life span through beneficial effects at the level of the mitochondrion.  1  2

The dysfunction of the mitochondria occurs more rapidly than any other components of the cell.  Mitochondrial degradation and dysfunction occurs as a result of the aging process.   A healthy population of mitochondria is critical for the well-being of cells.

These dysfunctional mitochondria have to be removed from the cell. Because of the danger of having damaged mitochondria in the cell, the timely elimination of damaged and aged mitochondria is essential for maintaining the integrity of the cell. This turnover process consists of the sequestration and hydrolytic degradation by the lysosome, a process also known as mitophagy.  3

mitophagy

Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. It often occurs to defective mitochondria following damage or stress.  The occurrence of mitophagy is not limited to the damaged mitochondria but also involves undamaged ones.  4

The dysfunctional mitochondria release hazardous materials, particularly when they have been compromised by damage or age. Accordingly, ensuring proper elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria is imperative to cellular survival, and mitochondrial damage has been implicated in aging, 5 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.  6

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, due to the aging process, can cause mitophagy to become less efficient.  Eventually, damaged mitochondria build up, leading to cell death.  7 

There are certain identified substances that enhance autophagy and thus probably apply to mitophagy:

  • Nicotinamide treatment decreases mitochondrial content and helps cells maintain high mitochondrial quality.  8
  • Wogonin and luteolin, have been shown cancer cell death through inhibition of autophagy.  9  10  11
  • Ginsenosides such as F2 have also been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects through the modulation of autophagy.  12
  • Naphthazarin, a naphthoquinone compound, is a microtubule depolymerising agent that induces cell death by activating apoptosis and autophagy.  13
  • Plumbagin induces G2-M arrest and autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway in breast cancer cells.  14
  • Berberine exhibits its anti-cancer effects by inducing autophagic cell death and mitochondrial apoptosis in liver cancers.  15
  • Tetrandrine acts as an enhancer of autophagy that induces early G1 arrest in colon carcinoma cells.  16

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Rosemary, it’s about Thyme to be a Sage

Rosemary, with the botanical name, Rosmarinus officinalis, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.

Rosmarinus_officinalis_SHRUB

It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which includes many other herbs. The name “rosemary” derives from the Latin for “dew” (ros) and “sea” (marinus), or “dew of the sea”.

Rosemary contains a number of phytochemicals and antioxidants:  1

  • Phytochemicals
    • 1,8-cineol
    • betulinic acid
    • borneol
    • bornyl acetate
    • caffeic acid
    • camphor
    • rosmarinic acid
    • therein
    • ursolic acid
    • α-pinene
  • Antioxidants
    • carnosic acid
    • carnosol

Most Rosemary supplements are standardized to contain 6% carnosic acid.

Rosemary has a multitude of health benefits and has been well researched.  These benefits are listed in the Table below:

Health Benefits of Rosemary

Rosemary   
SystemConditionBenefitReferences
Cardiovascular
Atherosclerosis
It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.1
Antithrombotic
Long-term daily intake of rosemary and common thyme has an antithrombotic effect, which is probably due to inhibition of platelets and stimulation of endothelial cells. The antithrombotic effect was not accompanied by prolongation of bleeding time.2
Detoxification
Quinone Reductase
Liver activities of GST and QR, and stomach GST activity were significantly increased in animals fed diets containing rosemary extract. However, diets supplemented with rosemary extract did not affect lung GST and QR activities. These results indicate that components of rosemary extract have the potential to protect mouse liver and stomach from carcinogenic or toxic agents.3
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines
The inhibiting effect of rosemary extracts on HCA formation corresponded to their antioxidant activity based on a DPPH scavenging assay. Rosemary extract 10E and 20E contain a mixture of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid. It is possible that these compounds might act synergistically in inhibiting the formation of HCAs.4
Carbon Tetrachloride
Histological evaluation showed that Rosmarinus officinalis partially prevented CCl(4)-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation. Rosmarinus officinalis might exert a dual effect on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury, acting as an antioxidant and improving GST-dependent detoxification systems.5
Leukotriene B4
Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system.6
Immunity
Cancer
Although the extracts exhibited various cytotoxic effects against different cell lines, comparatively low IC(50) values ranging between 12.50 and 47.55 microg/ml were attained against K-562, being the most sensitive cell line. Moreover, carnosic acid caused the lowest cell viability with values ranging from 13 to 30 % at a concentration of 19 muM after 48 h of treatments, resulting in superior antiproliferative effect. Rosemary extract is a potential candidate to be included in the anti-cancer diet with pre-determined doses avoiding toxicity.7
Breast cancer
Carnosol is one rosemary constituent that can prevent DMBA-induced DNA damage and tumor formation in the rat mammary gland, and, thus, has potential for use as a breast cancer chemopreventative agent.8
Skin cancer
At a dose rate of 500 mg/kg body wt/mouse, the oral administration of rosemary extract was found to be significantly protective against two-stage skin tumorigenesis.9
Leukemia
Results suggest that carnosol may be useful as a novel chemotherapeutic agent against B-lineage leukemias, and possibly other types of cancers that express high levels of the protective protein, Bcl-2.10
Inflammation
Rosemary can be considered an herbal anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent.11 12
Antimicrobial
Artemisia afra and R. officinalis showed similar and higher antimicrobial activity than P. incana. Due to their broad antimicrobial activities, the essential oils of the above plants growing in Eastern Cape may have preservative potential for the food and cosmetic industries.13
Metabolism
Antioxidant
Carnosol and carnosic acid have been suggested to account for over 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract.14
Liver protective
Carnosol prevents acute liver damage, possibly by improving the structural integrity of the hepatocytes. To achieve this, carnosol could scavenge free radicals induced by CCl(4), consequently avoiding the propagation of lipid peroxides. It is suggested that at least some of the beneficial properties of Rosmarinus officinalis are due to carnosol.15
Phospholipids (Peroxidation)
Rosemary extracts block damaging lipid peroxidation, the destruction of brain cells’ fatty membranes that impairs cognitive performance.16
Glycation
Rosemary inhibits fructose-mediated protein glycation.17
Cataract
Rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.18
Neurological
Alzheimer’s
May help to prevent/treat Alzheimer's Disease (by inhibiting the Acetylcholinesterase enzyme)19
Carnosic acid may be useful in protecting against beta amyloid-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus.20
Depression
May alleviate Depression21
Nerve Growth Factor
May enhance the production of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) (due to the carnosic acid and carnosol content of Rosemary)22
Memory
High concentration of carnosic acid, which helps improve memory 23
Concentration
Higher concentrations resulting in improved performance with 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), one of rosemary's main chemical components. 24
Parkinson’s
Carnosol may have potential as a possible compound for the development of new agents to treat Parkinson's disease 25


Resources:

Swanson Health Products – Rosemary

Starwest Botanticals – Rosemary (Varieties)


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