Monthly Archives: April 2016


Lactobacillus plantarum C88: Probiotic with Antioxidant Capabilities

Lactobacillus plantarum is a member of the genus Lactobacillus, commonly found in many fermented food products.  More specifically, Lactobacillus plantarum is found in the following foods:

  • brined olives
  • cheeses
  • fermented sausage
  • Korean kimchi
  • Nigerian Ogi
  • pickles
  • sauerkraut
  • sourdough
  • stockfish

Lactobacillus plantarum has demonstrated therapeutic value in the maintenance of health.  The following studies have been researched regarding lactobacillus plantarum:

  • Helps maintain intestinal permeability  1
  • Ability to suppress the growth of gas producing bacterium in the intestines and may have benefit in some patients who suffer from IBS  2
  • Lactobacillus plantarum C29 has been shown to increase brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)  3

Antioxidant Activities

Lactobacillus plantarum, particularly Lactobacillus plantarum C88, has shown potent antioxidant activities. 

Two independent published studies investigated the in vitro scavenging activity against free radicals of Lactobacillus plantarum C88:

The first study from June 2012 used Lactobacillus plantarum C88 and the investigators showed that it had the highest hydroxyl radical and DPPH scavenging activities, with inhibition rates of 44.31% and 53.05%, respectively.

Resistance of intact cells to hydrogen peroxide was also found in all strains. “L. plantarum C88 was the most resistant strain against hydrogen peroxide. When L. plantarum C88 was administered to senescent mice suffering oxidative stress induced by d-galactose, the serum superoxide dismutase activity, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the total antioxidant capacity in liver increased significantly, while the level of malondialdehyde in liver decreased significantly.”  4    

The second study from November 2012 evaluated the antioxidant activity of a neutral exopolysaccharide (EPS), designated LPC-1, that was isolated from the culture of Lactobacillus plantarum C88. 

The antioxidant activity of LPC-1 was evaluated with the in vitro scavenging abilities on hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.

The results indicated that LPC-1 had good scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals.

Furthermore, the protective effect of LPC-1 on H2O2-induced Caco-2 cells oxidative injury was investigated.

As results, LPC-1:

  • Inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA)
  • Raised the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD)
  • Raised the total antioxidant capacities (T-AOC)

These results demonstrate that the EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum C88 has antioxidant effects that may involve:

  • Scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • Up-regulation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities
  • Reduction of lipid peroxidation  5 

A third study which appeared May 2015, demonstrated the potential antioxidant properties when combining Panax ginseng polysaccharides and Lactobacillus plantarum C88.  This combination was found to possess significant DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities, and acidic polysaccharides showed better antioxidant activity than neutral polysaccharides.

Furthermore, the study evaluated the antioxidant effect of acidic Panax ginseng polysaccharide combined with Lactobacillus plantarum C88 strain in natural ageing mice in vivo. Acidic Panax ginseng polysaccharide and Lactobacillus plantarum C88 together inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacities (T-AOC) in a dose-dependent manner.  6

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Olive Leaf Extract: Further proof of Heart Health Benefits

A study published in the August 29, 2015 issue of Phytotherapy Research demonstrated that olive leaf extract can significantly reduce LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels.  1 

The high oleuropein content of olive leaf extract attributed to the observed benefits. 

The researchers stated that:

“Olive foods such as olive oil and olive leaf are major components of [the Mediterranean] diet, and oleuropein is responsible for most of their beneficial effects. Olive leaf also contains significant amounts of oleuropein which is traditionally removed from olives because of its biting taste.

“Our findings demonstrated a potential and beneficial effect of olive leaf extract in reducing the atherogenic index. In this study, atherogenic index, defined as the ratio of non-HDL to HDL was significantly decreased in high cholesterol diet fed rats treated with olive leaf extract.”

The researchers from Celal Bayar University,  Manisa, Turkey , concluded:

“The results of this study indicated that olive leaf extract supplementation decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in high cholesterol diet fed rats while HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. As alternative to statins and other drugs, olive leaf extract supplementation may help in improving the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia.”


Swanson Health product – Olive Leaf Extract Super Strength

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Danshen: A Very Promising Species of Sage

A very important species of Salvia is known as Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salvia miltiorrhiza (simplified Chinese: 丹参; traditional Chinese: 丹參; pinyin: dānshēn ), is also known as red sage, Chinese red sage, tan shen, or danshen. 

Danshen has been used by Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries, especially for cardiovascular disorders.   Within the past 20 years, many research studies have been published on the wide variety of health benefits of Danshen.  As of the date of this article (October 2015), there are 2217 published studies on Salvia miltiorrhiza or Danshen on PubMed.

There are a number of chemical constituents of Chinese Red Sage:

  • cryptotanshinone
  • danshensu
  • danshenspiroketallactone
  • dehydromiltirone
  • feruginol
  • hydroxytanshinone
  • isocryptotanshinone
  • isotanshinone-i
  • isotanshinone-ii
  • Isotanshinone-iii
  • magnesium
  • manganese
  • methyl-tanshinonate
  • methyl-tanshinone
  • miltirone
  • nortanshinone
  • oleanolic acid
  • protocatechuic aldehyde
  • protocatechuic acid
  • rosmarinic acid
  • salvianolic-acid
  • salviol
  • sodium
  • tanshinolactone
  • tanshinone-i
  • tanshinone-ii
  • tanshinone-ii
  • tanshinone-iii
  • tanshinonic-acid

The chemical compounds that have been and are being researched for their health benefits include:

Salvianolic acid

Salvianolic acid is an antioxidant that has been researched for it ability to protect against cerebrovascular disorders.  1  2

Dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA

Dihydrotanshinone I (DI) has been reported to have cytotoxicity to a variety of tumor cells.  3

Both Tanshinone I and Tanshinone IIA have been researched extensively for its  for anti-cancer effects.  4  5

Tanshinone IIA is the chemical compound researched the most and shows promise in the following areas:

  • antioxidant  6
  • anti-inflammatory  7
  • cardiovascular disorders  8
  • cerebrovascular disorders  9
  • neurodegenerative diseases  10
  • renal dysfunction associated with chronic kidney disease  11
  • brain edema formation in response to ischemia  12

The Table below is a more comprehensive list of the health benefits of Danshen (but by no means a complete list):

Health Benefits of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza)

The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease, stroke 1
Ischemic stroke
In clinical use for ischemic stroke 2
May assist in the prevention of atherosclerosis 3 4 
Ischemia/reperfusion injury
Effectiveness of Danshen-Gegen (DG) decoction extract given prophylactically in affording protection against myocardial I/R injury5
Cardiac hypertrophy
Tanshinone IIA Protects Against Cardiac Hypertrophy via Inhibiting Calcineurin/Nfatc3 Pathway6
Acute myocardial infarction
Salvianolic acid (SAL) and tanshinone (TAN) are major hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. TAN acts at an early stage after ischemic injury mainly by inhibition of intracellular calcium and cell adhesion pathways whereas SAL acts mainly by down-regulating apoptosis.7
Digestive System
Salvia miltiorrhizae can exert protective effects on the lymph nodes of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) or obstructive jaundice (OJ) rats via a mechanism that is associated with reducing the contents of inflammatory mediators in blood.8
α-glucosidase inhibitor
Compounds from Danshen have been reported to have inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase.9
tanshinone ΙΙA (1), tanshinone Ι (2), cryptotanshinone (3), dihydrotanshinone Ι (4), rosmarinic acid (5), caffeic acid (6), and danshensu (7 — were evaluated to show a broad antimicrobial spectrum of activity on test microorganisms including eight bacterial and one fungal species.10
Tanshinone IIA is one of the most abundant constituents of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions 11 12
The present study confirmed the anti-angiogenic effects of Tan IIA both in vivo and in vitro. Our results also demonstrated that Tan IIA could modulate the secretion of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in an opposite way and resulted in the decreased MMP-2 activity of vascular endothelial cells.13
Cryptotanshinone, the major active constituent isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been recently evaluated for its anti-cancer activity. Cryptotanshinone is a potent stimulator of ER stress, leading to apoptosis in many cancer cell lines, including HepG2 hepatoma and MCF7 breast carcinoma, and also demonstrate that mitogen-activated protein kinases function as mediators in this process.14
Breast cancer
May be helpful in the treatment of breast cancer15
Lung cancer
Anticancer effects of tanshinones on the highly invasive human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, CL1-5. Tanshinone I significantly inhibited migration, invasion, and gelatinase activity in macrophage-conditioned medium-stimulated CL1-5 cells in vitro and also reduced the tumorigenesis and metastasis in CL1-5-bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice16
Results suggest that Tan IIA may serve as an effective adjunctive reagent in the treatment of glioma for its targeting of constitutive STAT3 signaling.17
Colon cancer
Tanshinone II-A inhibited in vitro and in vivo invasion and metastasis of colon carcinoma (CRC) cells. The effect resulted from changes in the levels of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and apparent inhibition of the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway.18
Liver cancer
May initiate the apoptosis of liver cancer cells19 20
Gastric cancer
Tanshinone IIA can not only cause cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, but also trigger the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. The results suggest that Tanshinone IIA may serve as an effective adjunctive reagent in the treatment of gastric cancer.21
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) may be an efficacious anti-osteosarcoma (OS) drug as it could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro.22
Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, a traditional oriental medical herb, was observed to induce apoptosis in HL60 human premyelocytic leukemia cell line23
Tanshinone IIA activates calcium-dependent apoptosis signaling pathway in human hepatoma cells24
Prostate cancer
Tanshinone IIA significantly decreased the viable cell number of LNCaP (phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutant, high AKT, wild type p53) prostate cancer cells more sensitively than against the PC-3 (PTEN null, high AKT, p53 null) prostate cancer cells. Tan IIA significantly increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive index and sub-G1 DNA contents of treated cells, consistent with apoptosis.25 26 27
For HIV, chemicals in Danshen may block the effectiveness of an enzyme, HIV-1 integrase, that the virus needs to replicate.[28
Danshen induced HO-1 expression through PI3K/Akt-MEK1-Nrf2 pathway and reduced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species via induction of HO-1 expression. The results support a role of HO-1 in the cytoprotective effect of Danshen.29
Results showed that Danshen induced a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and an obvious increase in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in diabetic rats induced by a high fat diet and a low dose of streptozocin (STZ). These results suggested that Danshen has antidiabetic potential in vivo.30
Advanced Glycation End Products
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. (Dan shen) afforded two new compounds, 3-hydroxy-2-(2'-formyloxy-1'-methylethyl)-8-methyl-1,4-phenanthrenedione (1), (8'R)-isosalvianolic acid C methyl ester (2), and 14 known compounds. Compounds 2, 6, 11, 14, and 16 exhibited much more potent inhibition against AGEs than the positive control (aminoguanidine, AG, IC(50) 0.11 μM). 31
Salvia miltiorrhiza has protective effects against free radical-induced cell toxicity. 32
Lipoprotein oxidation
Tanshinone II-A (TSII-A) is an effective antioxidant against LDL oxidation in vitro. The underlying mechanism appears to be related to its peroxyl radical scavenging and LDL binding activity.33
May protect the Liver from toxins, especially Carbon Tetrachloride34
Liver fibrosis
Tanshinone IIA can possibly help prevent liver fibrosis35
May prevent cirrhosis36 
Musculoskeletal System
May be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis37
Osteoblastic cells
Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM), a commonly used Chinese herb increased osteogenesis in vivo38
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) might serve as a novel promising therapeutic agent for oxidative stress injury in neurodegenerative diseases.39
Tanshinone IIA has been identified as a natural monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor and may be a good candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease 40
Cerebral blood flow
Danshen may reduce or prolong the development of atherosclerosis and may have anti-hypertensive and anti-platelet aggregation effects, which prevent cerebral infarction.  41
Cerebrovascular protective effect of Salvianolic acid has been found to be due to prevention of apoptosis. 42
Salvia miltiorrhiza may stimulate dopamine release 43 
Brain edema in cerebral ischemia
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) was effective for attenuating the extent of brain edema formation in response to ischemia injury in rats, partly by Tan IIA's protective effect on the BBB. Our results may have implications in the treatment of brain edema in cerebral ischemia.44
Urinary System
Chronic renal diseases
Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble component from Danshen (a traditional Chinese herb widely used for chronic renal diseases) with anti-oxidative and cell protective properties. Sal B also has potential protective effects on renal diseases.45

Resources: – Dan shen (EFong) – Dan shen tablets

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Taurine is considered a Wonder Molecule

Taurine’s benefits are very broad and extensive and scientists have described it as a “wonder molecule”.

The often quoted benefits of taurine is that it promotes cardiovascular health, insulin sensitivity, electrolyte balance, hearing function, and immune modulation.

However, it also has the ability to provide protection against reactive carbonyl species and advanced glycation end products (AGE’s).

In a 2004 study at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India, scientists, Nandhini AT, Thirunavukkarasu V, and Anuradha CV, fed rats a high fructose diet (60% total calories) and then provided a 2% taurine solution for 30 days in order to investigate the antiglycating effect of taurine in high fructose fed rats in vivo and the inhibiting potency of taurine in the process of in vitro glycation.

As a result of the experiment, the contents of glucose, glycated protein, glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamine were significantly lowered by taurine treatment to high fructose rats. Taurine prevented in vitro glycation and the accumulation of AGEs.

Their conclusion was that these results underline the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic supplement for the prevention of diabetic pathology.


Stimulation of glucose utilization and inhibition of protein glycation and AGE products by taurine

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High Homocysteine Levels Can Damage Your Brain

It’s well established that at high levels, homocysteine, an amino acid metabolite, can damage the arteries feeding your heart.

However, new research shows it can also do some damage to your brain, resulting in poor memory, cognition and worsening hand-eye coordination.

Dr. Mike will discuss the latest research and offer safe and effective solutions for lowering homocysteine.

Listen to this excellent radio show from Healthy Talk w/ Dr. Michael Smith at

High Homocysteine Can Damage Your Brain (Original Air Date September 05, 2013)

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Acetyl Glutathione: A Novel Oral Form with Intracellular Penetration

The antioxidant glutathione, known as GSH, is arguably the most important antioxidant the body makes, and most certainly the most powerful intracellular antioxidant. In its reduced form it plays a pivotal role in DNA repair, immunity, flushing of toxins, removal of heavy metals, quenching of free radicals, and recycling of other antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. Glutathione supports detoxification in the lining fluid of the lung and intestines, enhances macrophage function, and slows virus production. Low levels of glutathione are associated with an astonishing range of diseases, from diabetes to Parkinson’s to asthma to kidney problems, and many other conditions.

Unfortunately, oral supplementation of glutathione has proved tricky and sometimes ineffective, since the molecule when taken orally is not able to effectively reach and be absorbed into the intracellular space where it is needed.(1,2) Optimal exposure to the potential benefits linked to GSH have been achieved with IV therapy but it is expensive and inconvenient, and has only short-term benefits, and so needs to be repeated frequently.

“The contribution of GSH deficiency in many pathologies has stimulated a number of researchers to find new potential approaches for maintaining or restoring GSH levels,” write Italian researchers in a review in the journal Molecules in 2010.(3) And as it turns out, those approaches have borne fruit. One novel formulation of the molecule, S-acetylglutathione (S-GSH), has been shown to be surprisingly well absorbed by cells and of great potential benefit.(3) It crosses the cell membrane more easily than GSH itself, and is easily de-acetylated in the cell, becoming active GSH. The fact that S-GSH can be effectively absorbed by cells after an oral dose argues for its great potential in comparison to IV therapy.

S-GSH proved a significant anti-viral agent both in vitro and in animal studies in a 2005 study from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital in Germany. Remarkably, it was stable in plasma and taken up directly by cells with subsequent conversion to GSH (the active, reduced form). In cell culture, S-GSH efficiently restored intracellular glutathione, and in mice, S-GSH but not plain glutathione, significantly decreased virally induced mortality. This novel form of glutathione was active and stable.(4)

S-GSH has also been shown to cause the death of certain cancer cells. In a study in the International Journal of Oncology, S-GSH induced significant cell death in three human lymphoma cell lines. It did not have the same effect on normal lymphocytes. The researchers concluded that “S-acetyl glutathione specifically activates programmed cell death in lymphoma cells.” In fact, their analysis showed that this form of glutathione depleted intracellular glutathione in the cancer cells, in a selective effect that was the opposite of its action in normal cells.(5)

Finally, in mice infected with a viral complex, S-GSH was able to reduce spleen viral content by 70% and lymph node viral content by 30%–and to do so at half the concentration of GSH.(6) As the Italian researchers note in Molecules, glutathione analogues such as S-GSH “may offer a promising therapeutic alternative for reducing the GSH functional loss related to many human diseases.”(3)

(Source: Nutricology Newsletter In Focus June 2011)


  1. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9. PMID: 1362956
  2. Hagen TM, Wierzbicka GT, Sillau AH, Bowman BB, Jones DP. Bioavailability of dietary glutathione: effect on plasma concentration. Am J Physiol. 1990 Oct;259(4 Pt 1):G524-9. PMID: 2221062
  3. Cacciatore I, Cornacchia C, Mollica A, Pinnen F, Di Stefano A. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels. Molecule. 3 March 2010. PMID: 20335977
  4. Vogel JU, Cinatl J, Dauletbaev N, Buxbaum S, Treusch G, Cinatl J Jr, Gerein V, Doerr HW. Effects of S-acetylglutathione in cell and animal model of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2005 Jan;194(1-2):55-9. PMID: 14624358
  5. Locigno R, Pincemail J, Henno A, Treusch G, Castronovo V. S-acetyl-glutathione selectively induces apoptosis in human lymphoma cells through a GSH-independent mechanism Int J Oncol. 2002 Jan;20(1):69-75. PMID: 11743644
  6. Fraternale A, Paoletti MF, Casabianca A, Orlandi C, Schiavano GF, Chiarantini L, Clayette P, Oiry J, Vogel JU, Cinatl J Jr, Magnani M. Inhibition of murine AIDS by pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules. Antiviral Res. 2008 Feb;77(2):120-7. PMID: 18164447

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The Detoxification Potential of Alginates

Alginate, also known as its chemical name, alginic acid, is an anionic polysaccharide found in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum. It has the ability to absorb water quickly; typically 200-300 times its own weight in water.

There are a number of forms of alginates:

Ammonium Alginate – used as a stabilizing agent and water-retainer in commercial food processing.

Calcium Alginate (Calcium bound to Alginic Acid) – used commercially as a stabilizing agent and/or thickening agent in the commercial production of flavorings, ice creams, cottage cheese, cheese snacks, dressings, spreads, and fruit drinks.

Potassium Alginate consists of potassium bound to alginic acid.

Propylene-Glycol Alginate is a synethically-manufactured alginate.

Sodium Alginate consists of sodium bound to alginic acid. This is the form of alginate that is used as a supplement for therapeutic purposes, and which is present in sea vegetables such as kelp.

Alginates may bind to bile acids in the small intestine and may enhance their elimination.

Alginates may facilitate the excretion of several detrimental minerals (toxic metals) by binding to them in the intestinal tract and preventing their absorption:

  • Barium
  • Strontium (including Radioactive Strontium-90)
  • Cadmium


Carr, T. E., et al. Reduction in the absorption and retention of dietary strontium in man by alginate. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. 14(3):225-233, 1968

Story, J. A., et al. Bile acid metabolism and fiber. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 31(10 Supplement):S199-S202, 1978

Tanaka, Y., et al. Application of algal polysaccharides as in vivo binders of metal pollutants. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Seaweed Symposium. Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, pages 602-607, 1972

Reduction of strontium absorption in man by the addition of alginate to the diet. Sutton A. Journal Nature. 1967 Dec 9;216(5119):1005-7

Jodra, Y. and Mijangos, F. Ion exchange selectivities of calcium alginate gels for heavy metals. Water Sci Technol, 2001:43(2); 237-44

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Benfotiamine can be used to block Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE’s)

Benfotiamine is the fat-soluble synthetic S-acyl derivative and precursor compound of thiamine, vitamin B1. When the body absorbs benfotiamine, the substance gets converted from its inactive form into its active form via the body’s metabolic processes.

Consumption of benfotiamine can be used to block Advanced Glycation End (AGE) Products, end products of glycation that have negative detrimental effects on the health of individuals with high blood sugar (especially diabetics). Thus, benfotiamine can be used to reduce such complications as the scarring of blood vessels that function to filter urine from the blood in one’s kidneys, scarring/thickening of lung tissues that lead to interstitial lung disease, and factors associated with aging and age-related chronic diseases. For more details, see Advanced Glycation End Products.

In addition to blocking AGEs, benfotiamine can lessen the severity, delay the progression of, and sometimes even repair damages inflicted by diabetic complications. A case in point would be retinopathy where small blood vessels in the retina are damaged and can gradually lead to blindness. Studies have found that benfotiamine can help prevent this condition.

Benfotiamine has also been found to delay and reduce nephropathy, a disease of the kidney that causes deterioration in the kidney’s ability to function. Oftentimes, individual with nephropathy will have to become dependent on dialysis. Benfotiamine can help normalize the individual’s glucose levels and interfere with the formation of AGEs.

In addition, Benfotiamine can also be used to treat neuropathy, a nerve disorder that damages an individual’s nerves and leaves them feeling a burning, tingling or numbness in their body. Studies have found that large doses of benfotiamine can help improve the condition of patients with neuropathy.


Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy

Benfotiamine Prevents Macro- and Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress Following a Meal Rich in Advanced Glycation End Products in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine

Effects of low- and high-advanced glycation endproduct meals on macro- and microvascular endothelial function and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus1,2,3

Prevention of Incipient Diabetic Nephropathy by High-Dose Thiamine and Benfotiamine

Benfotiamine is similar to thiamine in correcting endothelial cell defects induced by high glucose

High-dose benfotiamine rescues cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

Benfotiamine relieves inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats

The multifaceted therapeutic potential of benfotiamine

PDF Reference Files:

Note: PDF files require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader

Benfotiamine – Fights the “Caramelization of the Flesh”

Benfotiamine Inhibits Intracellular Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products in vivo

Informational References:

Benfotiamine at Clinical

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Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are potent atmospheric pollutants. Some compounds have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic.

The EPA has classified seven PAH compounds as probable human carcinogens:

  • benz[a]anthracene,
  • benzo[a]pyrene,
  • benzo[b]fluoranthene,
  • benzo[k]fluoranthene,
  • chrysene,
  • dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and
  • indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

The source of PAH’s include:

  • Car exhaust
  • The smoke generated by various cooking methods
    • High heat grilling
    • Barbequing
    • Smoked foods (meats, fish,etc.)
  • Tobacco smoke

These substances may inhibit the conversion of PAHs into carcinogens:


Wang, H., et al. The carotenoid lycopene differentially regulates phase I and II enzymes in dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced MCF-7 cells. Nutrition. 2010.


Berge, G., et al. Resveratrol inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation in human bronchial epithelial cells. Br J Cancer. 91(2):333-338, 2004.


Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) DNA adduct formation in DNA repair-deficient p53 haploinsufficient [Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-)] and wild-type mice fed BP and BP plus chlorophyllin for 28 days

Vitamin C

Gajecka, M., et al. The protective effect of vitamins C and E against B(a)P-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 18(3):159-167, 1999

Vitamin E

Gajecka, M., et al. The protective effect of vitamins C and E against B(a)P-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 18(3):159-167, 1999.

Green Tea

Wang, Z. Y., et al. Protection against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced skin tumor initiation in mice by green tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis. 10(2):411-415, 1989.


Benzo[a]pyrene is the first PAH chemical carcinogen to be discovered. Benzo[a]pyrene is also found in coal tar, in automobile exhaust fumes (especially from diesel engines), in all smoke resulting from the combustion of organic material (including cigarette smoke), and in charbroiled food.

These substances may counteract the toxic effects of Benzo[a]pyrene:

D-Glucaric Acid

Walaszek, Z., et al. Dietary glucarate-mediated reduction of sensitivity of murine strains to chemical carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters. 33(1):25-32, 1986.


Jin, N. Z., et al. Preventive effects of quercetin against benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damages and pulmonary precancerous pathologic changes in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 98(6):593-598, 2006.

Vitamin C

Gao, A., et al. [Vitamin C reverses benzo (a) pyrene-induced cell cycle changes by E2F pathway.] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 40(2):79-83, 2006.

Vitamin E

Gajecka, M., et al. The protective effect of vitamins C and E against B(a)P-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 18(3):159-167, 1999

Blueberries, Raspberries, Strawberries

Hope Smith, S., et al. Antimutagenic activity of berry extracts. J Med Food. 7(4):450-455, 2004.

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Are You Methylating Properly?

The methylation pathways in the body is critical to good health. There are various functions of methylation within the body:

  • detoxification of carcinogens and other toxins
  • repair damage DNA
  • the formation of new cells
  • the manufacture of certain hormones

One of the indicators that the body is not methylating properly is a high homocysteine serum level.

Methylation is the transfer of a methyl group, which is what happened with carbon attached to three atoms of hydrogen, from one molecule to another.

Methylation is composed of two components:

1. Methyl donors-methyl donors are compounds that supply the methyl groups needed for methylation.

2. Methylating factors-methylating factors are nutrients that assist with the methylation process by providing enzymes that detach the methyl groups from the methyl donors and reattach them to other molecules.

Methyl donors consists of the following:

  • Methionine
  • Choline
  • Trimethylglycine (TMG)
  • Dimethylglycine (DMG)
  • S-Adenosyl methionine (SAMe)

Methylating factors consist of the following:

  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin B6
  • Folate
  • Zinc

When the body is deficient in both methyl donors or methylating factors detoxification and repair functions of the body are compromised.

Methylation is the enzymatically-catalyzed process of adding a methyl group to proteins, DNA and RNA. This process is involved in RNA metabolism and the regulation of gene expression and protein function. While it does not change the sequence of the genome, methylation determines which genes are expressed and are responsible for changes in gene expression.

In general, methylation is a normal process that occurs in humans. DNA methylation has been found to play an important role in embryonic development, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation in females and cases where individuals possess two X-chromosomes, and chromosome stability.

Studies have found that embryos lacking the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to DNA die during the differentiation stage. The methylation of histones, proteins involved in the packaging and ordering of DNA into structural units, regulates processes such as gene transcription and DNA repair.

Given the importance of methylation, errors in the process can result in devastating genetic disorders and human diseases. For instance, a loss of methylation results in the genomic instability present in the tumor cells of an individual with cancer.

On the other hand, if methylation is present in cells that are normally unmethylated and cause the process of transcribing DNA into RNA to be silenced, tumors can develop that in turn can lead to cancer (i.e., colon cancer).

Aside from cancer, errors in DNA methylation are also responsible for:

  • Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome (ICF syndrome)
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • Angelman’s syndrome
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

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