Monthly Archives: October 2015

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Allium sativum (Garlic) has antiatherosclerotic effect

Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, has been shown to have a wide variety of cardiovascular benefits. 

One such benefit includes its antiatherosclerotic effect against plaque buildup in the carotid arteries.  A study published in the journal Atherosclerosis in May 1999 substantiated that not only a preventive but possibly also a curative role in arteriosclerosis therapy (plaque regression) may be ascribed to garlic remedies.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the plaque volumes in both carotid and femoral arteries of 152 probationers were determined. 

“Continuous intake of high-dose garlic powder dragees reduced significantly the increase in arteriosclerotic plaque volume by 5-18% or even effected a slight regression within the observational period of 48 months. Also the age-dependent representation of the plaque volume shows an increase between 50 and 80 years that is diminished under garlic treatment by 6-13% related to 4 years.”  1

Other studies over the years have also demonstrated the antiatherosclerotic effect of allium sativum:

Banerjee, S. K., et al.  Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a  review.  Nutr J.  1(1):4, 2002.

Breithaupt-Grogler, K., et al.  Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly.  Circulation.  96(8):2649-2655, 1997.

Durak, I., et al.  Effects of garlic extract on oxidant/antioxidant status and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit aorta.  Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.  12(3):141-147, 2002.

Durak, I., et al.  Effects of garlic extract consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in atherosclerotic patients.  Life Sciences.  75(16):1959-1966, 2004.

Gonen, A., et al.  The antiatherogenic effect of allicin: possible mode of action.  Pathobiology.  72(6):325-334, 2005.

Lau, B. H. S., et al.  Allium sativum (garlic) and atherosclerosis:  A review.  Nutrition Research.  3:119-128, 1983.

Orekhov, A. N., et al.  Direct anti-atherosclerosis-related effects of garlic.  Ann Med.  27(1):63-65, 1995.

Rassoul, F., et al.  The influence of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on interleukin 1alpha-induced expression of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.  Phytomedicine.  13(4):230-235, 2006.


Resources:

KYOLIC® Aged Garlic Extract™


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Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Cancers

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to determine what caused a cancer in any individual.  Most cancers have multiple causes. 

Medical science has identified up to 100 different cancers affecting humans.  1  The majority of these cancers, some 90–95% of cases, are due to environmental factors, while the remaining 5–10% are due to inherited genetics. 

Environmental factors include lifestyle factors which include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, exposure to toxins and pollution and physical inactivity.   2

This article identifies nineteen of the most common cancers and identifies some of the risk factors and potential causes of these cancers.  The risk factors are exclusively related to lifestyle factors and does not include genetic factors.  The lists are by no means comprehensive, but provide a starting point for further research.

The 19 cancers include:

  • Bladder Cancer
  • Brain Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Laryngeal Cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Liver Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Lymphomas
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Skin Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer

Risk Factors and Potential Cause of Cancers

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Intestinal Parasites
Schistosoma haematobium1
Meats
Bacon2
Minerals
Arsenic3
Recreational Drugs
Tobacco4

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Brain Cancer

Brain Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Nitrosamines1
Exotoxins
Diketopiperazine (DKP)2
Polyvinyl Chloride3
Food Additives
Aspartame4 5
Foods
Bacon6
Ham7
Nervous System
Head Injuries (Meningioma)8

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAA’s)1
Amino Acids
Homocysteine2
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars3 4
Electromagnetic Radiation
X-rays5
Environmental toxins
Air pollution6
Organochlorines7
Enzymes
Aromatase (excessive)8
Beta-Glucuronidase (excessive)9
Fatty Acid Synthase (excessive)10
Ornithine Decarboxylase (excessive)11
Protein Kinase C (excessive)12
Food Preparation
Barbequed foods13
Growth Factors
Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1)14
Herbs
Dong Quai15
Hormones
Estradiol (elevated)16
Estrone (excessive)17
Leptin (elevated)18
Prolactin (excessive)19
Lipids
Omega-6 Fatty Acids (excessive)20
Prostaglandin E2 (excessive)21
Metabolism
Diabetes Mellitus Type 222
Insulin resistance23
Obesity24
Musculoskeletal System
Fibrocystic Breat disease25
Pesticides
Dioxin (exposure)26
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Synthetic Estrogens27
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors28
Processed Foods
Margarine29
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol (excessive)30 31

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amino Acids
Homocysteine (elevated)1
Enzymes
Ornithine Decarboxylase (excessive)2
Hormones
16-Hydroxyestrone (a metabolite of Estrone)3
Metabolism
Obesity4
Recreational Drugs
Tobacco5
Sexual System
Cervical Dysplasia6
Viruses
Papilloma Viruses (Papilloma Virus-16, Papilloma Virus-18, Papilloma Virus-31, Papilloma Virus-45)7

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAA’s)1
Beverages
Beer2
Bile Acids
Cholic Acid (Excessive immobile)3
Deoxycholic Acid (Immobile)4
Lithocholic Acid (excessive/accumulation)5
Carbohydrates
Simple Sugars6 7 8 9
Digestive System
Crohn’s disease10
Ulcerative colitis11
Enzymes
Beta-Glucuronidase (excessive)12
Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) (excessive)13
Hyaluronidase (Hyaluronate Lyase form)14
Ornithine Decarboxylase (excessive)15
Food Preparation
Fried foods16
Growth Factors
Epidermal Growth Factor (excessive)17
Hormones
Insulin (elevated) (Hyperinsulinemia)18 19
Leptin (elevated)20
Immune System
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) (excessive)21
Lipids
Omega-6 Fatty Acids (excessive)22 23
Prostaglandin E2 (excessive)24
Meats
Bacon25
Frankfurters26
Lamb27
Pork28
Salami29
Red Meat (Heme)30 31 32
Metabolism
Diabetes Mellitus Type 233
Obesity34 35 36 37
Microorganisms
Strepococcus bovis38
Minerals
Iron (excessive)39
Nervous System
Stress (excessive)40 41
Proteins
C-Reactive Protein (elevated)42 43
Heme (excessive dietary intake)44 45
Oils
Corn Oil46 47
Safflower Oil48
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol49 50
Tobacco51 52

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Endometrium Cancer

Endometrium Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars1
Enzymes
Aromatase (excessive)2
Food Toxins
Acrylamide3
Growth Factors
Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1)4
Hormones
Estrone (excessive)5
Hyperinsulinemia (Elevated Insulin levels)6
Metabolism
Obesity7
Minerals
Iron (excessive)8
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Conjugated Estrogens (excessive)9
Tamoxifen10
Sexual System
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)11

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Beverages
Beer (N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) [a Nitrosamine] content of Beer)1
Enzymes
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (excessive)2
Foods
Red meat3
Metabolism
Obesity4
Microorganisms
Fusarium moniliforme-contaminated Food5
Processed Foods
Pickled Foods6
Recreational Drugs
Tobacco7 8
Alcohol9 10

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Kidney Cancer

Kidney Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Food
Red meat (excessive consumption)1
Food Toxins
Acrylamide2
Metabolism
Obesity3 4
Minerals
Copper (excessive consumption)5
Mycotoxins
Ochratoxin6
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (A-ASs) (excessive consumption)7
Estrogens (excessive)8

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngeal Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Nitrosamines1
Microorganisms
Helicobacter pylori2 3
Recreational Drugs
Tobacco4
Marijuana (long term smoking)5
Alcohol6

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Leukemia

Leukemia  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Electromagnetic Radiation
X-rays1
Food Additives
Aspartame2 3
Immune System
Myelodysplasia4
Oral Health
Periodontal Disease5
Pesticides
Chlordane6
Heptachlor7 8

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Liver Cancer

Liver Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Alkaloids
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (Riddelliine)1
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs)2
Enzymes
Cyclooxyggenase (COX-2 form) (excessive)3 4
Environmental Toxins
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)5
Herbs
Butterbur (due to the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids present in Butterbur)6
Comfrey (due to the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids found in Comfrey)7
Hormones
Hyperinsulinemia8
Meats
Red Meats9
Metabolism
Obesity10
Minerals
Fluoride (excessive)11
Mycotoxins
Aflatoxin (produced by various species of detrimental Aspergillus moulds)12
Ochratoxin13
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (A-ASs)14
Tamoxifen15
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol16 17 18

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-l-butanone (NNK) present in tobacco smoke1 2 3
Electromagnetic Radiation
X-Rays4
Environmental Toxins
Air Pollution5
Asbestos6
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)7
Food Preparation
Barbequed Meats8
Lipids
Prostaglandin E29
Trans-Fatty Acids10
Metabolism
Obesity12
Minerals
Cadmium13
Calcium (excessive)14
Iron (excessive)15
Nickel Carbonyl16
Phosphorus (excessive)17
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Conjugated Estrogens18
Progestins19
Medroxyprogesterone20
Processed Foods
Margarine21
Recreational Drugs
Tobacco22

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Lymphomas

Lymphomas  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Aldehydes
Formaldehyde1
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs)2
Exotoxins
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)3
Food Additives
Aspartame4 5
Lipids
Saturated Fatty Acids6
Trans-Fatty Acids7
Metabolism
Obesity8

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Multiple Myeloma

Multiple Myeloma  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Aldehydes
Formaldehyde1
Immune System
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) (excessive)2
Metabolism
Obesity3

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Carbohydrates
Lactose1 2
Electromagnetic Radiation
X-Rays3
Enzymes
Fatty Acid Synthase (excessive)4
Foods
Dairy Products5
Ham6
Red Meat7
Food Toxins
Acrylamide8
Hormones
Androstenedione (endogenous)9
Estrogens (excessive)10
2-Hydroxyestrone (excessive)11
Estradiol (excessive)12
Metabolism
Obesity13
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Clomiphene (a Fertility Drug)14

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Beverages
Soft Drinks1 2 3
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars4
Enzymes
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (excessive)5
Food Preparation
Barbequed Meats6
Hormones
Insulin (elevated)7
Lipids
Arachidonic Acid8
Meats
Red Meats (excessive consumption of grilled or barbequed red meats due to the Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs) formed in Red Meats during these cooking methods)9 10
Metabolism
Cross-Linking (glycation) (excessive)11
Obesity12
Proteins
Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (activation)13
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol14
Tobacco15 16 17

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs)1
Environmental Toxins
Pesticides2
Dioxin3
Enzymes
5-Alpha Reductase (excessive)4
5-Lipoxygenase (excessive)5
Beta-Glucuronidase (excessive)6
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (excessive)7
Fatty Acid Synthase (excessive)8
Foods
Dairy Products9
Growth Factors
Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) (elevated)10
Hormones
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)11
Estrogens (specifically 16-Hydroxyestrone) (excessive)12 13
Prolactin (excessive)14
Immune System
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) (elevated)15
Lipids
Alpha-Linolenic Acid (excessive consumption)16
Arachidonic Acid (excessive conversion)17
Prostaglandin E2 (excessive)18
Meats
Red meats (Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs) present in Meats cooked at a high temperature)19
Metabolism
Insulin Resistance20
Obesity21
Minerals
Cadmium22
Lead23
Calcium (excessive consumption)24
Phosphorus (excessive consumption)25
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Cimetidine (long term use)26
Processed Foods
Margarine27
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol28
Viruses
Papilloma Viruses (especially HPV 16)29

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Coumarins
Furocoumarins (Psoralens)1
Enzymes
Ornithine Decarboxylase (excessive)2
Lipids
Trans-Fatty Acids3
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol4
Processed Foods
Margarine5
Sunscreens
Titanium Dioxide (a common ingredient in Sunscreens)6

Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Stomach Cancer

Stomach Cancer  
CategoryRisk FactorReferences
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs)1
Nitrosamines2
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars3 4 5
Digestive System
Hypochlorhydria6
Hydrazines
Agaritine (due to it converting within the Stomach to a highly reactive and mutagenic metabolite of Diazonium)7
Lipids
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)8
Microorganisms
Helicobacter pylori9 10
Minerals
Sodium (excessive)11
Processed Foods
Pickled Foods12
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol13 14

The Table below is a summary of the 19 Tables of Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Cancers listed above;

Summary of Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Cancer

CategoryRisk Factor12345678910111213141516171819#
Aldehydes
FormaldehydeXX2
Alkaloids
Pyrrolizidine AlkaloidsX2
Amines
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAA’s)XXXXXX6
Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-l-butanone (NNK) present in Tobacco smokeX1
NitrosaminesXXX3
Amino Acids
Homocysteine (elevated)XX2
Beverages
Beer (N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) [a Nitrosamine] content of beer)XX2
Soft DrinksX1
Bile Acids
Cholic Acid (Excessive immobile)X1
Deoxycholic Acid (immobile)X1
Lithocholic Acid (excessive accumulation)X1
Carbohydrates
LactoseX1
Simple sugarsXXXXX4
Coumarins
Furocoumarins (Psoralens)X1
Digestive System
Crohn’s diseaseX1
HypochlorhydriaX1
Ulcerative colitisX1
Electromagnetic Radiation
X-RaysXXXX4
Environmental toxins
Air PollutionXX2
AsbestosX1
DioxinX1
OrganochlorinesX1
PesticidesX1
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)XX2
Enzymes
5-Alpha Reductase (excessive)X1
5-Lipoxygenase (excessive)X1
Aromatase (excessive)XX2
Beta-Glucuronidase (excessive)XXX3
Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) (excessive)XXXXX5
Fatty Acid Synthase (excessive)XXX3
Hyaluronidase (Hyaluronate Lyase form)X1
Ornithine Decarboxylase (excessive)XXXX4
Protein Kinase C (excessive)X1
Exotoxins
Diketopiperazine (DKP)X1
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)XX2
Foods
Dairy ProductsXX2
HamXX2
Food Additives
AspartameXXX3
Food Preparation
Barbequed foodsXXX3
Fried foodsX1
Food Toxins
AcrylamideXXX3
Growth Factors
Epidermal Growth Factor (excessive)X1
Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) (elevated)XXX3
Herbs
Butterbur (due to the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids present in Butterbur)X1
Dong QuaiX1
Comfrey (due to the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids found in Comfrey)X1
Hormones
16-Hydroxyestrone (a metabolite of Estrone)X1
2-Hydroxyestrone (excessive)X1
Androstenedione (endogenous)X1
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)X1
Estradiol (excessive)X1
Estrogens (excessive)X1
16-Hydroxyestrone (excessive)X1
Estrone (excessive)XX2
Hyperinsulinemia (Elevated Insulin levels)XXXX4
Leptin (elevated)XX2
Prolactin (excessive)XX2
Hydrazines
Agaritine (due to it converting within the Stomach to a highly reactive and mutagenic metabolite of Diazonium)X1
Immune System
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) (excessive)XXX3
MyelodysplasiaX1
Intestinal Parasites
Schistosoma haematobiumX1
Lipids
Alpha-Linolenic Acid (excessive consumption)X1
Arachidonic Acid (excessive conversion)XX2
Omega-6 Fatty Acids (excessive)XX2
Prostaglandin E2 (excessive)XXXXX5
Saturated Fatty AcidsX1
Trans-Fatty AcidsXXX3
Meats
BaconXXX3
FrankfurtersX1
LambX1
PorkX1
Red MeatsXXXXXX6
SalamiX1
Metabolism
Cross-Linking (glycation) (excessive)X1
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2XX2
Insulin resistanceXX2
ObesityXXXXXXXXXXXXX13
Microorganisms
Fusarium moniliforme-contaminated FoodX1
Helicobacter pyloriXX2
Strepococcus bovisX1
Minerals
ArsenicX1
CadmiumXX2
Calcium (excessive)XX2
Copper (excessive consumption)X1
Fluoride (excessive)X1
Iron (excessive)XXX3
LeadX1
Nickel CarbonylX1
Phosphorus (excessive)XX2
Sodium (excessive)X1
Musculoskeletal System
Fibrocystic Breast diseaseX1
Mycotoxins
Aflatoxin (produced by various species of detrimental Aspergillus moulds)X1
OchratoxinXX2
Nervous System
Head Injuries (Meningioma)X1
Stress (excessive)X1
Oils
Corn OilX1
Safflower OilX1
Pesticides
ChlordaneX1
Dioxin (exposure)X1
HeptachlorX1
Pharmaceutical Drugs
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (A-ASs) (excessive long-term use)XX2
Cimetidine (long term use)X1
Clomiphene (a Fertility Drug)X1
Conjugated EstrogensXX2
HMG-CoA Reductase InhibitorsX1
MedroxyprogesteroneX1
ProgestinsX1
Synthetic Estrogens (excessive)XX2
TamoxifenXX2
Processed Foods
MargarineXXXX4
Pickled FoodsX1
Proteins
C-Reactive Protein (elevated)X1
Heme (excessive dietary intake)X1
Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (activation)X1
Recreational Drugs
Alcohol (excessive)XXXXXXXXX9
Marijuana (long term smoking)X1
TobaccoXXXXXXX7
Sexual System
Cervical DysplasiaX1
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)X1
Sunscreens
Titanium Dioxide (a common ingredient in Sunscreens)X1
Viruses
Papilloma Viruses (Papilloma Virus-16)XX2
Legend:
1 Bladder Cancer; 2 Brain Cancer; 3 Breast Cancer; 4 Cervical Cancer; 5 Colorectal Cancer; 6 Endometrial Cancer; 7 Esophageal Cancer; 8 Kidney Cancer; 9 Laryngeal Cancer; 10 Leukemia; 11 Liver Cancer; 12 Lung Cancer; 13 Lymphomas;
14 Multiple Myeloma; 15 Ovarian Cancer; 16 Pancreatic Cancer; 17 Prostate Cancer; 18 Skin Cancer; 19 Stomach Cancer

The Table below lists the top 12 Risk Factors and Potential Causes of Cancers based on the Summary Table above. 

Top 12 (Dirty Dozen) Risk Factors of Cancers

Risk Factor# of Cancers
Obesity13
Alcohol (excessive)9
Tobacco7
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAA’s)6
Red Meats6
Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) (excessive)5
Prostaglandin E2 (excessive)5
Simple sugars4
X-Rays4
Ornithine Decarboxylase (excessive)4
Hyperinsulinemia (Elevated Insulin levels)4
Margarine4


References:

National Cancer Institute

American Cancer Society

MedlinePlus – Cancer

Mayo Clinic – Cancer


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Antioxidants: Mechanisms and Testing

The importance of antioxidants as molecular agents to balance and counteract oxidative stress through the scavenging of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) is well established in science.  However, the mechanism and effectiveness of antioxidants go beyond this delicate balance. 

An important article published on October 27, 2015, by Brunswick Laboratories entitled Antioxidants: Mechanisms of Action and Effectiveness, by Jasenka Piljac Zegarac, PhD delves deeper into the intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidants.  The article also distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous antioxidants by stating:

“The human body utilizes both endogenous antioxidants as well molecules ingested through diet, as its defense mechanism. Examples of endogenous antioxidants include enzymes and small molecules such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione, while vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenolics are representative of dietary antioxidants. In general, antioxidants belong to several categories, they are either: i) enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase; (ii) hormones (melatonin for example); (iii) proteins (albumin, ferritin, etc.); or (iv) small molecules (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, glutathione, uric acid, tocopherol).1

This very interesting article in its entirety can viewed at the following link:   Antioxidants: Mechanisms of Action and Effectiveness


Brunswick Laboratories is the leading company in independent BioAnalytical Testing & Research in the areas of:

  • Food and Nutrition
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Cosmetic

The company’s capabilities include:

  • Phytochemical quantification and profiling (Antioxidant testing; ORAC Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity; other phytonutrient profiling and fingerprinting)
  • Human cells based bioassays to identify health benefit potentials of a material: Anti-inflammatory, Anti-aging, Weight/diabetes management, Anti-cancer, and Antioxidant
  • Clinical studies to evaluate Oxidative Stress Reduction, Inflammation Reduction, Weight/Diabetes Management, Metabolic Syndrome Improvement, and other health functions of a material
  • General bioanalytical services: ADME/TOX, PKPD, LC-MS/MS method development, Fractionation, API identification and isolation

Jasenka Piljac Zegarac, PhD is a scientific writer and academic researcher on health and nutrition.  Her work and website can be found at The Scientist Writer


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Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol: Potential Cancer Inhibition

Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (hereinafter “IP6”), is a natural carbohydrate molecule present in most plant and animal cells, primarily cereals, grains, legumes and meat.   IP6 can also be made in the human body from inositol.

The function of IP6 in the human body is the regulation of numerous intracellular functions:

  • Signal transduction
  • Cell growth and differentiation
  • Platelet function
  • Cholesterol metabolism

IP6 has shown striking anticancer effects in different experimental models. Inositol has also been found to possess moderate anticancer activity.

An important study published in The Journal of Nutrition in November 2003 examined the cancer inhibition potential of IP6 and Inositol.  According to the study:

the most consistent and best anticancer results were obtained from the combination of IP6 plus inositol.  In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP6 increases differentiation of malignant cells, often resulting in a reversion to normal phenotype.”   1

The study further states that:

“IP6 holds great promise in our strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancer. IP6 plus inositol enhances the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, controls cancer metastases, and improves the quality of life, as shown in a pilot clinical trial. The data strongly argue for the use of IP6 plus inositol in our strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the effectiveness and safety of IP6 plus inositol at therapeutic doses needs to be determined in phase I and phase II clinical trials in humans.”   2

As hypothesized, it was demonstrated that IP6 is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, affecting different cells and tissue systems. IP6 inhibited the growth of all tested cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner.  In vitro studies with IP6 are summarized in Table 1.

TABLE 1

Antitumor effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) in vitro

Organ or tissue Species Cell line Investigator
Blood Human Erythroleukemia Shamsuddin et al. (26)
K562 cell line
K562 + human bone marrow Deliliers et al. (27)
Colon Human Adenocarcinoma Sakamoto et al. (28)
HT-29 cell line Yang & Shamsuddin (29)
Lung Rat Tracheal epithelium + B[a]P Arnold et al. (30)
Liver Human HepG2 cells Vucenik et al. (31)
Mammary Human Adenocarcinoma Shamsuddin et al. (32)
MCF-7, MDA-MB 231 cells
Uterine cervix Human HeLa cells Ferry et al. (25)
Prostate Human Adenocarcinoma Shamsuddin & Yang (33)
PC-3 cell line
Human DU145 cells Zi et al. (15)
Singh et al. (34)
Skin Mouse JB6 cells Huang et al. (35)
Mouse HEL-30 cells Nickel & Belury (36)
Soft tissue Mouse 3T3 fibroblast Babich et al. (37)
Human Rhabdomyosarcoma, RD cells Vucenik et al. (38)

(Source:  Cancer Inhibition by Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) and Inositol: From Laboratory to Clinic J. Nutr. November 1, 2003 vol. 133 no. 11 3778S-3784S)

A summary of in vivo studies using IP6 and inositol is shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2

Antitumor effect of IP6 and inositol in vivo

Organ/Tissue Species Disease parameter Mode Investigator
Colon Mouse Carcinoma in drink Shamsuddin et al. (19)
Rat Carcinoma in drink Shamsuddin et al. (18,20)
Rat Carcinoma in drink Ullah & Shamsuddin (40)
Rat Carcinoma in diet Nelson et al. (41)
Rat Carcinoma in diet Shivapurkar et al. (42)
Rat Carcinoma in diet Pretlow et al. (43)
Rat Carcinoma in diet Challa et al. (44)
Rat Carcinoma in diet Jenab & Thompson (45)
Mouse Cell proliferation in diet Thompson & Zhang (46)
Liver Rat Hepatocellular Ca in diet Hirose et al. (47)
HepG2 cell line intratumoral Vucenik et al. (48)
Lung Mouse Pulmonary adenoma in diet Estensen & Wattenberg (49)
Wattenberg (50)
Mammary Rat Carcinoma in drink Vucenik et al. (51,52,53)
Rat Carcinoma in diet Shivapurkar et al. (42)
Hirose et al. 1994 (54)
Mouse Cell proliferation in diet Thompson & Zhang (46)
Skin Mouse Papilloma two-step in drink Ishikawa et al. (55)
initiat→promotion in drink
Soft Tissue Rat Fibrosarcoma in diet Jariwalla et al. (56)
Transplanted 12% Mg
Mouse Fibrosarcoma i.p. Vucenik et al. (39)
Trans + Metast
Human Rhabdomyosarcoma peritumoral Vucenik et al. (38)
RD cell line

(Source:  Cancer Inhibition by Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) and Inositol: From Laboratory to Clinic J. Nutr. November 1, 2003 vol. 133 no. 11 3778S-3784S)


Informational References:

IP-6 Research, Inc.


Resources:

Jarrow Formulas, IP6, Inositol Hexaphosphate

Jarrow Formulas, Inositol, Powder

Dr. Shamsuddin’s Original IP-6 IP6 Gold Immune Support Original Formula with IP6 & Inositol

Cell Forte IP-6 & Inositol

Natural Factors, IP6 & Inositol


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Hesperidin: Bioavailability Challenges

Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits of the following kinds:

  • Bitter Orange, Petitgrain
  • Citrus sinensis
  • Zanthoxylum gilletii
  • Lemon
  • Tangerine
  • Lime
  • Leaves of Agathosma serratifolia
  • Peppermint

The challenge with consuming hesperidin is that only 25% of orally consumed hesperidin is absorbed or made bioavailable.

The bioavailability of a natural substance is the measure of how much a substance you take truly gets into your bloodstream and is delivered to its sites of action in your body.

The bioavailability of hesperidin in generally poor. 

The main reason for this is hesperidin in its original form is not very water soluble.  Hesperidin and hesperidin can both exist as (S) and (R) isomers.  Natural hesperidin (e.g., tangerines), contain 100% of the S isomer whereas supplemental hesperidin usually contains S 50% and R 50% isomers.

To solve the challenge of hesperidin’s poor bioavailability, a number of options can be pursued:

Consume dried orange/lemon peels

If orange/tangerine or lemon peels (after being thoroughly washed) are dried for 5 to 7 days, the hesperidin content of the dried peels is roughly 5-10%.  If 5 grams of those dried peels are consumed, then a dose of 500mg of hesperidin can made bioavailable.  The best way to consume these dried peels is to grind the peels down to granules or a fine powder.  These granules or powder can be added to a smoothie.  However, they should never be cooked with heat.  Lemon or orange peel powder can be purchased at health food stores or spice stores.

Supplemental Hesperidin

There are a few forms of hesperidin in supplemental form that are more bioavailable than the original form:

α-Glycosyl hesperidin  (G-Hesperidin)  1

α-Glycosyl hesperidin, a novel hesperidin derivative wherein equimolar or more D-glucose residues are bound to hesperidin via the d-bond, is formed by a saccharide-transferring enzyme in a liquid containing hesperidin and α-glucosyl saccharide. The α-glycosyl hesperidin is easily recovered from the reaction mixture with a synthetic macroporous resin. α-Glycosyl hesperidin is superior in water-solubility, substan­tially tasteless and odorless, free of toxicity, and readily hydrolyzable in vivo into hesperidin and D-glucose to exhibit the physiological activity inherent to hesperidin.

Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone (HMC)

While hesperidin in its original form is not very water soluble, hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is highly water soluble for greater absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. 

CordiartTM  2

Cordiart™ has been specially formulated to contain a very high ratio of the active form of the molecule (the “S” form) compared with the less active form (the “R” form). This mimics natural oranges, which contain 100% “S”—and is distinctly different from conventional hesperidin supplements, which contain nearly equal amounts of “S” and “R” forms.

This increased bioavailability comes as a result of Cordiart™’s unique formulation. BioActor recently conducted a study to determine the bioavailability of Cordiart™ compared to a generic rutinoside extract. In a cross over study, 10 healthy subjects either received 500 mg of Cordiart™, or 500 mg of a generic rutinoside extract on separate days. After ingestion of the product, blood samples were taken at regular intervals during 24 hours and urine was collected. Results showed that Cordiart™ has a 50% higher bioavailability compared to generic rutinoside. Furthermore, Cordiart™ showed a faster and higher absorption into the blood during the first hour after ingestion.


Resources:

Swanson Health Products – EndoPro Endothelial Support Formula

Life Extension – NitroVasc with Cordiart

Doctor’s Best – Best Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone


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Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans): Multiple Health Benefits

Nutmeg (also known as pala in Indonesia) is one of the two spices – the other being mace – derived from several species of tree in the genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans.

Nutmeg is the seed of the tree, roughly egg shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) wide, and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.2 and 0.4 oz) dried, while mace is the dried “lacy” reddish covering or aril of the seed.

If nutmeg is taken in large doses, it can have pychoactive effects.  Nutmeg powder contains myristicin, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor.  Myristicin poisoning can induce convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain.  In lower doses, there is typically no pychoactive effect. 

A 1/4 teaspoon added to a smoothie each day should not produce any pychoactive effects.

The Table below lists some of the recognized and researched health benefits of nutmeg:

Health Benefits of Nutmeg

CategoryBenefitReference
Anxiety
May reduce anxietyA
Cholesterol
M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model.B
Depression
May exert antidepressant effects in depression patientsC
Learning
May improve learning abilityD
Leukemia
Methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt induced apoptosis of Jurkat leukemia T cell line in a mechanisms involving SIRTI mRNA downregulation.E
Memory
May improve memoryF


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Oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation through an increase in BDNF

Oroxylin A is a chemical compound known as a flavone that is primarily found in the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis.  1

Scutellaria baicalensis, or Baikal skullcap or Chinese Skullcap, (Huang Qin or 黄芩, 黃芩) is a plant cultivated in Siberia, Mongolia, the Russian Far East, China and Korea. 

BaicalSkullcap

Scutellaria baicalensis roots

In a study published in September 2014 in the Brain Research Bulletin, the data from the researchers suggest that Oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation through BDNF-TrkB signaling and confirms that the increase of BDNF in a specific time window plays a crucial role in memory consolidation.  2

The study investigated the role of Oroxylin A on the memory consolidation process in mice. Oroxylin A improved the memory retention administered at 0 h, 1 h and 3 h after training in a passive avoidance task, suggesting that Oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation.

Oroxylin A increased mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) levels in the hippocampus from 6h to 24h after administration. Moreover, 3h post-training administration of Oroxylin A enhanced the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial compared to the level at 6h after the acquisition trial. However, 6h post-training administration of Oroxylin A did not increase the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial.


Resources:

Biofoundations.net – Huang Qin – Chinese Skullcap (Root)


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Brain Factor–7 (BF-7) from Silkworms: Enhancing Brain Health

Silk emitted by the silkworm (Bombyx mori), and other insects, consists mainly of two proteins:

  • Sericin
  • Fibroin

Sericin is the protein that is like a gum and sticky and allows the fibroin (fibers) protein to stick together.  Fibroin is the structural insoluble protein that creates the cacoon and webs.

The fibroin protein consists of layers of antiparallel beta sheets.  Beta sheets consist of beta strands connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. The beta-sheet structure of fibroin consists of the recurrent amino acid sequence:

Glycine-Serine-Glycine-Alanine-Glycine-Alanine

silk_beta_sheets

Silk beta-sheets

Brain Factor-7 (BF-7) is created by taking raw silk and exposing it to filtration and purification processes and proteolysis. This process turns the raw silk fibroin into a enzymatically hydrolyzed protein.

The rigid structure and tensile strength of silk (fibroin) is due to the high Glycine content in the amino acid sequence.  The beta sheet amino acid sequence of fibroin enables them to interact with signaling receptors in cell and nuclear membranes.   Because BF-7 can cross the blood-brain barrier, they can interact directly with beta-pleated sheet structures in brain cell membranes to support cognitive function.

The Table below list the known scientific studies on the neuroprotective benefits of BF-7:

Neuroprotective Benefits of Brain Factor-7 (BF-7)

#Function/ConditionEffectReference
1AntioxidantSilk fibroin has the ability to protect brain function by removing oxidative stress and thereby protecting against oxidative damage1
2Enhancement of Memory and Cognitive FuntionTreatment with BF-7 significantly improved memory and cognitive function. Moreover, the memory index and memory preservation of clinical experiments using MMSE-K tests were significantly improved memory and cognitive function. This results strongly represent that the BF-7 play effectively positive role in the improvement of brain function including learning and memory. Taken together, our results suggested that the BF-7 should be useful for developing strategies protecting nervous system and improving brain function.2
3Blood circulationSilk fibroin can increase blood flow to critical areas of the brain involved in memory and learning3
4Alzheimer's diseaseSericin can be used as a potential cognitive enhancer in general and Alzheimer’s disease4
5Cognitive function (in children)Brain factor-7 (BF-7) extracted from Bombyx mori improves cognitive functions in normal juveniles and adults as well as cognitively impaired patients.
Brain factor-7 extracted from Bombyx mori enhances cognition and attention in normal children. The results reveal that BF-7 improves brain function for attention and cognitive flexibility in children.
5
6Cognitive function by release of acetylcholineResults indicate that SP preparations restore cognitive functions of facilitated
brain aging model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine, in addition to neuroprotective activity.
6
7Learning and memoryResults of the study showed that the blood flow to parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal area was increased by the use of BF-77
8Ischemia-induced Learning and Memory DeficitsTreatment of BF-7 greatly reduced the infarct size. Also the neuronal damages in the hippocampus were significantly diminished. Furthermore, The memory impairment by ischemia was recovered. The clinical test showed that BF-7 greatly enhanced the brain function recognizing and memorizing complex two dimensional figures8
9Memory-enhancing effectsIn this study, we identified three novel peptides that could improve memory, and that silk fibroin hydrolysate was a mixture of various active peptides that could enhance memory. 9
10Amyloid beta PeptideBF-7 significantly attenuated A beta-induced apoptosis as measured by intracellular calcium levels,accumulation of reactive oxygen species,mitochondrial dysfunction,and caspase activity.These results strongly indicate that BF-7 plays an effective and positive role in the improvement of brain functions,including learning and memory,in our model system for Alzheimer's disease.10


Informational Reference:

SmartNutri Co., Ltd. (Korea):  Supplier of BF-7


Resources:

Swanson Health Products – NeuroSilk with Brain Factor-7

Hamsoa Pharmaceutical – Doctor Multi-vitamin Mineral Brain


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Asafoetida: Considered as a Repugnant Spice but has Potent Health Benefits

Asafoetida, also spelled Asafetida, is a plant native to the deserts of Iran, mountains of Afghanistan, and is mainly cultivated in nearby India.  It is used as a spice in many dishes in these regions of the world.  The raw root is also used in cooking methods.

Asafetida-plant

Asafoetida plant

Dried asafetida consists mostly of a resin (25 to 60% of the total mass, 60% of which are esters of ferula acid) and a complex carbohydrate part (25 to 30%).  The resin portion is known to contain asaresinotannols ‘A’ and ‘B’, ferulic acid, umbelliferone and four unidentified compounds.  1

The essential oil (10%) contains a wealth of sulfur compounds, mainly:

  • (R)-2-butyl-1-propenyl disulphide (50%)
  • 1-(1-methylthiopropyl) 1-propenyl disulphide
  • 2-butyl-3-methylthioallyl disulphide

The essential oils also contain:

  • terpenes (α-pinene, phell­andrenes)
  • sesqui­terpenes with coumarines
  • hendecyl­sulphonyl acetic acid

Other compounds include:

  • di-2-butyl trisulphide
  • 2-butyl methyl trisulphide
  • di-2-butyl disulphide
  • di-2-butyl tetrasulphide 

The Table below lists the recognized and researched studies on the health benefits of Asafoetida:

Health Benefits of Asafotida

Asafoetida   
BiosystemConditionBenefitReference
Cardiovascular
Hypertension
Asafoetida may lower Blood Pressure in Hypertension patients1
Immunity
Cancer
Asafoetida may inhibit various forms of cancers2 3 4
Breast Cancer
Asafetida may help to prevent Breast cancer5
Influenza
Asafetida may help to prevent Influenza. Asafoetida was used in 1918 to fight the Spanish influenza pandemic6
Glutathione
Asafetida may increase the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase7
Microorganisms
AntimicrobialAsafoetida has a broad range of uses as an antimicrobial8
Neurological
Memory
Asafetida may improve Memory (due to the Azerin content of Asafetida)9 10


Resources:

Savory Spice Shop – Asafetida

Nature’s Answer – Asafetida Oleo-Gum-Resin Extract


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Olive Tree: Bountiful Health Giver

The olive tree is known by the botanical name Olea europaeaThe magnificent olive tree produces three foods/substances that provide a wide range of health benefits.  It is highly recommended to consume all three foods/substances from the olive tree to maximize their extensive health benefits.

The three foods/substances are:

  • Olive fruit
  • Olive oil
  • Olive leaf

Olive fruit

There a large variety of olive fruit (olives) from all over the world .  A comprehensive list can be searched separately.  From a nutritional point of view, olives contain very important polyphenols:

  • tyrosols 
    • oleuropein
    • free hydroxytyrosol
    • demethyloleuropein
    • oleoside
    • Hydroxytyrosol-elenolate
    • Hydroxytyrosol-1-glucoside
    • Hydroxytyrosol-4-glucoside
    • oleoside-methylester
    • 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in fruit but more in olive oils.
  • Coumaric acids
  • anthocyanins
    • 3-O-rutinoside
    • cyanidin 3-O-glucoside
  • flavonols
    • Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside
    • Quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside
  • Flavones
    • Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
    • Luteolin
    • luteolin 6-C-glucoside
    • apigenin 7-O-glucoside
    • apigenin 7-O-rutinoside
  • methyl acetal of the aglycone of ligstroside
  • ß-hydroxytyrosol ester of methyl malate
  • Verbascoside
  • sinapic acid
  • syringic acid
  • protocatechuic acid
  • 4-hydroxybenzoic acid
  • p-hydroxyphenylpropanoic acid
  • 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid
  • 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid
  • ferulic acid
  • caffeic acid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Triterpenic Acids
    • Maslinic Acid
    • Oleanolic Acid

Olive oil

Olive oil is the fat derived from the olive fruit.  There are many varieties each with a particular flavor, texture, and shelf life. The composition varies by cultivar, region, altitude, time of harvest, and extraction process.   

Olive oil should always be consumed as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and in its raw state and never heated or used for cooking or in the cooking process, like frying, grilling or baking.  Always use EVOO on food after it has been cooked or on raw foods, e.g., salads, vegetables, etc. 

Heating olive oil will create peroxidation and result in rancid olive oil.  Olive oil should always be stored in a cool environment (refrigerator) and never left in the direct sunlight or a warm or hot environment.  This will also result in the olive oil becoming rancid, thus losing all of it health benefits and actual may do damage to cells.

The active compounds in olive oil are as follows:

  • Fatty acids
    • Oleic acid
    • Linoleic acid
    • Palmitic acid
    • Stearic acid
    • α-Linolenic acid
  • Polyphenols
    • tyrosol
    • hydroxytyrosol
    • oleocanthal
    • oleuropein
    • elenolic acid
    • 10-hydroxyoleuropein
    • ligtroside
    • 10-hydroxyligstroside
    • Apigenin
    • Luteolin
  • Flavonoids
  • Lignans
  • Pinoresinol
  • Phytosterols
    • Beta-sitosterol
    • Campesterol
    • Stigmasterol
  • Triterpenes
    • Squalene
    • Cycloartenol
  • Triterpenic Acids
    • Maslinic Acid
    • Oleanolic Acid
    • Ursolic Acid

Olive leaf

Olive leaf is from the leaf of the olive tree and is usually consumed in powdered form or as a capsuled supplement.

Olive leaf is quite a powerful substance and it main active substance is oleuropein.  The highest concentration of oleuropein is found in the olive leaf.  The other active substances found in olive leaf are:

  • Glucosides
    • Oleuropein
  • Polyphenols
    • Hesperidin
    • Elenolic acid
    • Luteolin
    • Rutin
    • Apigenin   

The Table below lists the recognized and researched health benefits of Olive fruit, Olive oil and Olive leaf extract:

Health Benefits of Olive Fruit, Olive Oil and Olive Leaf
SystemConditionOlive FruitOlive OilOlive Leaf#
Cardiovascular
AtherosclerosisXX2
Blood clottingX1
HypertensionXX2
Cardiac muscleX1
Blood circulationX1
Endothelial dysfunctionX1
Prevent the formation of arterial plaquesX1
Fibrinogen levelsX1
StrokeXX2
Immunity
CancerXXX2
Bladder cancerX1
Colon CancerXX2
InflammationXX2
Breast cancerXX2
Lung cancerX1
Skin cancerX1
Heliobacter pyloriX1
Candida albicansX1
LeukemiaX1
InfluenzaX1
Anti-bacterialX1
Metabolism
AntioxidantXX2
LDL CholesterolXX2
HDL CholesterolX1
Chronic Fatigue SyndromeX1
DiabetesX1
Non-Alcoholic Fatty LiverX1
HypothyroidismX1
Musculoskeletal
Rheumatoid ArthritisXX2
Neurological
Parkinson’sX1
Age related memory impairmentX1
Multiple sclerosisX
NeuroprotectiveX1
Tau aggregation inhibitorX1

Informational References:

International Olive Council


Resources:

Swanson Health Products – Olive Leaf

Life Extension – Olive Leaf

Starwest Botanticals – Olive Leaf Powder

Mountain Rose Herbs – Olive Leaf Powder


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